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31 Cards in this Set

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What may be done to prevent falls in hospitalized elderly patients?
Basic maneuvers such as locking the wheels on the bed or wheelchair, keeping needed equipment within easy reach, and making the nurse call light readily available.
Any one of numerous mechanical devices or chemical agents used to hinder or restrict a patient's movement.
Safety Guidelines for Use of Mechanical Restraints:
Visually check on patient every 15 minutes
Assess circulatory, physical, and emotional status and release restraints every 2 hours
Never attach a restraint to the SIDE RAIL!!!
Use mechanical restraint as a last alternative, and discontinue use as soon as possible
Maintain compliance with local, state, and federal requirements in relationship to restraint usage
The use of psychotropics, hypnotics, or anxiolytics to control a potentially violent patient
Chemical Restraint
Fire Prevention Acronym
R-Rescue & Remove from immediate danger
A-Activate Alarm
C-Contain fire
E-Extinguish fire (PASS)
PASS Acronym
P-Pull the pin
A-Aim at base of fire
S-Squeeze handle
S-Sweep side to side
The coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems to maintain balance, posture, and body alignment during lifting, bending, moving, and performing ADL's.
Body Mechanics
What is the efficient use of the body as a means of locomotion?
Body Mechanics
Maintains good muscle tone and prevents injury
Body Alignment
Enhanced by proper posture
Body Balance
The ability to move and maintain posture is due to what?
Contracture fo muscles
List the 5 Functions of the Skeletal System:
4.Mineral Storage
5.Hematopoiesis (red blood cell production)
What can cause each body system to be at risk for impairment?
Alteration in Mobility
Severity of body system impairment caused by immobility depends on...
Overall Health
Degree of immobility experienced
Cyclical physiological process that alternates with longer periods of wakefulness.
What influences and regulates physiological function and behavioral responses?
Sleep-wake cycle
-Includes lightest level of sleep
-Lasts a few minutes
-Decreased physiological activity begins w/ gradual fall in VS and metabolism
-Person is easily aroused by stimuli such as noise
-When awakened, person feels as if daydreaming has occurred
Stage 1: NREM
-Perio of sound sleep
-Relaxation progresses
-Arousal is still relatively easy
-Stage lasts 10-20 minutes
-Body functions contiue to slow
Stage 2: NREM
-Involves intial stages of DEEP sleep
-Sleeper is difficult to arouse and rarely moves
-Muscles are completely relaxed
-Vital signs DECLINE but remain regular
-Stage lasts 15-30 min
Stage 3: NREM
-Is DEEPEST stage of sleep
-Very difficult to arouse sleeper
-Stage longer if sleep loss has occured
-VS are significantly lower than during waking hours
-Stage last approx. 15-30min
-Sleepwalking and enuresis may occur
-Body releases growth hormone for repair and renewal of specialized cells (i.e. brain cells)
Stage 4: NREM
-Vivid, full-color dreaming may occur in this stage
-Stage usually begins about 90 min after sleep begins
-Is typified by autonomic response of reapidly moving eyes, fluctating heart and resp. rates, and increased or fluctuating BP
REM Sleep
-Loss of skeletal muscle tone occus
-It is very difficult to arouse sleeper
-Duration increases w/ each cycle and averages 20 min
-Essential for cognitive restoration, memory storage, and learning
REM Sleep
What physiologic behaviors are increased during REM sleep?
2.Gastric Secretion
3.Respiratory Rates
Why do we darken the room at night?
Stimuli from sensory organs may activate the reticular system.
What are the most common side effects of benzodiazepines?
Drowsiness and ataxia
What can happen if hypnotics are stopped abruptly?
Rebound insomnia
What is the best time to perform a bath?
Whenever the patient would perfer to have one.
When is it appropriate to try to change a patient's hygiene practices?
When the patients current practices are inadequate for physiological needs.
Death of cells
Purposes of Bathing
-Cleansing the skin
-Stimulaton of circulation
-Improved self-image
-Reduction of body odors
-Promotion ROM
Physiological changes take place through bathing:
-Improved circulation
-Improved respirations
-Maintenance or improvement of muscle tone