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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 characteristics of culture?
culture is learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, and dynamic
What are the 5 purposes of religion?
1) Reinforces group norms
2) Reduces Anxiety
3) Serves as a common interest group
4)Gives Meaning to life
5) Provides solutions to specific problems
What is the difference between Ethnography and Ethnology?
Ethnography has to do with one particular culture where Ethnology studies the spread of different cultures and how they relate to one another.
This is when a religion has many gods
polytheism
What is the difference between a Symbol and a Signal.
A symbol is an arbitrary word given meaning, and a signal is a sound that is understood cros culturaly like a sigh, scream, or crying.
This is when a religion has one god
monotheism
What are the three stages of a rite of passage?
Separation, Liminality, and Reincorporation
These are ritual practices that have a supernatural connection
magic
What is an Age Set
People of the same age that get clumped together
a type of magic based on imitation or correspondence
sympathetic magic
This type of magic is based on the principle that things or persons once in contact can afterward influence each other.
Contagious magic
What are the four fields of anthropology?
Physical, Archaeology, Linguistic, and Cultural Anthropology.
a set of beliefs based on the existence of non-human "spiritual beings" or similar kinds of embodied principles
Animism
This is the study of people in all times and all places.
Anthropology
A belief in a generalized impersonal power over which people have some measure of control (think "the force")
Anamatism
This is when you judge another culture based on the values and standards of your own culture
ethnocentrism
These are full time people who represent the gods
priests
This is the idea that people all around the world do things the way you do them.
Naive Realism
These are part-time people who enter an altered state of mind and represent the people.
shamans
This is when one must suspend Judgement in order to understand other cultures
Cultural Relativism
an explanation of events based on the idea that some people have a psychic ability to harm others
witchcraft
This is when you are Aware of your biases and the biases of others towards you.
Reflexivity
what are the two types of witchcraft?
Everyday
nightmare-evil
This is status that can be achieved based on skill or merit
Achieved status
What are the 5 modes of subsistence
foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, industrialism
This is status that cannot be gained such as race, sex, and parental status.
Ascribed status
This is the payment by men to parents of bride
Bride Price
The cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes
gender
the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to the marriage
Dowry
People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
ehnic group
What are the 3 rules of marriage?
culturally sanctioned,
2 or more people,
rights and obligations
the expression of cultural ideas held by an ehnic group
ethnicity
This means the household is related by blood
Consanguineal
This is when multiple races maintain separate identities in the same state
Pluralistic society
Marrying within a group or category of individuals
Endogamy
The desire for a society to maintain multiple cultures within the society
Multiculturalism
Marrying people from outside a group of individuals
Exogamy
What are the three studies of Linguistics?
Descriptive, Historical, and Sociolinguistics
This is a marriage between two people
Monogamy
The systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
Phonetics
societal mating practice in which individuals engage in sequential pairings
Serial Monogamy
The smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
Phoneme
This is when one individual has many spouses
Polygamy
This theory, held by Edward Tylor, has the following three stages of culture:
1) Barbarism
2) Savagery
3) Civilization
Unilinear Evolution
this is when one man has many wives
Polygyny
This anthropological method uses data collected from the field to make theories based on them. Franz Boas was a proponent.
Historical Particularism
This is when one woman has multiple husbands
polyandry
This is the idea that a culture will borrow traits belonging to another culture as the result of contact
Diffusionism
This Theory, invented by Malinowski states that all cultural traits are created in order to serve the needs of individuals in a society.
Functionalism
This is when several men and women have sexual relations with one another
group marriage
This theory, invented by Radcliffe-Brown, held that cultural practices and institutions perform the function of maintaining a society's social structure
Structural-functionalism
This is the marriage to proxy of the symbols to someone who is not there
Fictive marriage
This theory, created by Leslie A. White, explains that cultures are a work in progress and change over time.
Neoevolution
what are the 4 organizations of groups of people?
Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, State
This is the study of the relationship between a culture and its environment
Cultural Ecology
a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history
Nation
This theory, held by Claude Levi-Strauss, states that cultural practices are systems of signification, and mental structures.
Structuralism
this view of anthropology views classes as conflicting bodies within a society
Marxist Anthropology
This is the focus on the relationship between gender and society
Feminist Approaches
This theory of anthropology, proposed by Michel Foucault, analyzes cultural practices in terms of the various epistemologies (ways of knowing) in which the practice has developed.
Post-modernist Approaches
This is when there are 1 or 2 parents and established offspring
nuclear family
the basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out
household
living in the husbands fathers residence
patrilocal residence
living in the wifes mothers house
matrilocal residence
the couple choses patrilocal or matrilocal
ambilocal
This is when there are 1 or 2 parents and established offspring
nuclear family
the basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out
household
living in the husbands fathers residence
patrilocal residence
living in the wifes mothers house
matrilocal residence
the couple choses patrilocal or matrilocal
ambilocal
couple lives independent of parents house
Neolocal Residence
couple lives with wife's brother
Avunculocal Residence
a network of relatives where individuals possess rights and obligations
Kinship