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49 Cards in this Set

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What is an EEG?

1) Beta?
2) Alpha?
3) Theta?
4) Delta?
An EEG is an ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM that records the brain electrical potentials from the scalp.

1) Beta - >12 Hz.
2) Alpha - 7 to 12 Hz.
3) Theta - 3 to 7 Hz.
4) Delta - < 3 Hz.

* Note: Sleep recordings represent a continuum of frewuencies.
What is the pathway related to sleep?
Pathway in brain.
What are different characteristics of EEG (high/ low or fast/ slow) in different stages of sleep?

1) Wake?
2) NREM?
3) REM?
1) Wake - Low voltage fast EEG
“Desynchronized” - external activation

2) NREM - High voltage slow EEG
“Synchronized” - deactivated

3) REM - Low voltage fast EEG
“Desynchronized” - internal activation
*NREM*

What are the different stages in REM sleep and what characterizes these different stages? (4)

STAGE 1?
STAGE 1 is characterized by..

1) "Alpha drop- out" - theta activity
2) Vertex sharp waves
3) Slow eye movements
4) Muscle Relaxation
5) Sleep "starts"
6) Central apneas?
What are the characteristics of STAGE 2?
STAGE 2:

1) Theta activity - progressive slowing
2) Sleep spindles - 13- 14 hz** this is the hallmark of STAGE 2 sleep
3) K- complex - large amplitute/ biphasic/ evoked response
What are the characteristics of STAGE 3/4?
STAGE 3/4:

1) >20% slow wave activity
2) Frequency and amplitude criteria
3) Highest arousal threshold of sleep
4) Alpha-delta sleep anomaly
*REM*

What are the characteristics of REM sleep?

**What's significant about REM sleep?
REM sleep:

1) Reticular activation - desynchronization
2) Stage 1- like EEG/ "sawtooth" waves
3) Hippocampal theta activity
4 Phasic/ tonic components
5) Rapid eye movements

6) Muscle atonia
7) Muscle twitches (phasic phenomenon)
8) Cognitive activity
9) PGO (Pontine- Geniculate- Occipital) spikes

** It's has very high levels of COGNITION and INTERNAL activation??
When does REM occur most frequently?
It occurs most frequently during the second half of the night.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENT BETWEEN SLEEP TERRORS AND NIGHTMARES?
**
What's the difference between NON-REM and REM sleep?

*NON-REM*
Autonomic activity
Respiratory
Thermal
Muscle tone
Genitals
Cerebral blood flow
Cognition/ Cortical arousal
NON-REM

Autonomic activity - decreased heart rate and bp

Respiratory - decreased drive to low O2/ increased CO2

Thermal - intact regulation

Muscle tone - reduced

Genitals -
Cerebral blood flow - reduced CBF

Cognition/ Cortical arousal - reduced
*REM*
REM

Autonomic activity - variable sympathetic activity

Respiratory - lowest drive to low 02/ increased C02

Thermal - poikilothermic

Muscle tone - minimal

Genitals - penil erections/ increased vaginal blood flow

Cerebral blood flow - increased CBF

Cognition/ Cortical arousal - abundant BIZARRE
What is the ONTOGENY (development) of sleep?

What are the different stages of development of sleep?
1) Fetal sleep
2) Newborns
3) Develop
4) 1 year old
5) 2 years old
6) Second decade
7) Later in adult life
8) Elderly
What happens throughout development? (1- 5)
1) Fetal sleep - 80% of "active sleep" at 30 weeks

2) Newborns - 16 to 18 hours of sleep
- active sleep 50% of the time
- quiet sleep
- intermediate sleep

3) Develop - establish major nocturnal sleep by 3- 4 months

4) 1 year old - get 12- 13 hours + 2 naps
- 30% of their sleep is in REM

5) 2 years old - get 10- 12 hours of sleep + nap(s)
- only 25% REM (fixed)
What happens throughout development? (6-8)
6) Second decade - marked by decline of SW activity

7) Later in adult life - gradual decline in SWS but other stages remain fixed

8) Elderly
- an increased in difficulty of staying asleep
- lighter sleep
- increasing awakening
- less refreshing
- changes in timing/ depth/ melatonin secretion
*CIRCADIAN RHYTHM*

1) What is sleep- wake cycle?

2) What is it regulated by?

3) What other physiological functions are synchronous with S/W cycle?
1) The Sleep wake cycle consists of ~ 24 hours


2) It's regulated by
A) Biological factors
B) External cues (aka ZEITGEBERS)

3) Temperature/ hormonal/ other physiological function in synchrony with S/W cycles
1) What is Process S?

2) What is Process C?
1) Process S
- It's homeostatic and is related to time since last sleep
- Increases exponentially during wake hours
- Strongly correlated with SWS
- Possibly ADENOSINE driven

2) Process C
- It's a CIRCADIAN- SINUSOIDAL variation of sleep tendency based on temporal schedule
What does ENTRAINMENT refer to in terms of CR?

What does adjustments of each cycle period compensate for?

What does synchronization lead to?
ENTRAINMENT describes period and phase control of an oscillator by an environmental cycle

- ADJUSTMENTS of each cycle period COMPENSATE for differences between intrinsic period and environmental cycle (day- night)

- You get SYNCHRONIZATION of clocks so that overt rhythms occur at correct daily phases
What does FREE- RUNNING refer to?
FREE- RUNNING refers to persistence of rhythms during constant conditions (ie constant light or darkness)

- So if humans had a FREE- RUNNING sleep period, it would show an average period slightly longer than 24 hours
1) When are S-W rhythms established?

2) What do FREE- RUNNING data show?

3) What about Periodocity?
1) S-W cycles are established early in life

2) FREE- RUNNING data suggests a period of 25.5 hours with significant variability AND evidence suggests that we have a pacemaker period of about 24.2 hours with little variance

3) Periodocity appears to be stable of a life cycle although expression may vary
What is PHOTIC ENTRAINMENT? (5)
PHOTIC ENTRAINMENT

1) It is when the light entrains the CR within various limis and according to specific patterns

2) Graphic description of the cycles response to light is contained in phase- response curves (PRC)

3) Light presented near INITIATION of "dark cycle activity" produces PHASE DELAY

4) Light presented near CONCLUSION of "dark cycle activity" produces PHASE ADVANCE

5) Light presented during typical "light cycle activity" produces little or no effect
What things are involved in BIOLOGIC CONTROL?

What controls our PRIMARY CLOCK MECHANISM?

What experimental evidence shows this?
BIOLOGIC CONTROL

1) Intrinsic/ self- sustaining/ self- cycling clock mechanism

2) Controls RHYTHMICITY of multiple biological functions and behaviors, including sleep- wake or rest activity

3)PRIMARY CLOCK MECHANISM: SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS

4) SCN ablation - >loss of rhythmicity
SCN isolation - > autorhythmicity
SCN stimulation - > phase shifting
1) What is the MASTER or GATING PACEMAKER for other oscillators?

2) What does DESYNCHRONIZATION OF RHYTHMS in humans suggest?
1) SCN

* some rhythms may survive SCN destruction

2) Desynchroniation of rhythms in humans suggest more than one pacemaker (SEE SLIDE 51)
Where is RHYTHMICITY evident?
RHYTHMICITY is evident in temperature, hormone secretion, cardio- vascular function, and other systems
*MELATONIN*

1) What is it?

2) What is it released by?

3) What does it do?

4) What is it linked to?
1) It is the "hormone of darkness"

2) Released by PINEAL GLAND in response to darkness

3) It reinforces "darkness signal" via melatonin receptors on SCN and induces phase shift opposite to those of light

4) It is linked to control of body temp
What role might this play in old age and what are some therapeutic actions?
Levels decline from childhood to adulthood, especially during old age

May play a role in geriatric insomnia

Some therapeutic actions:
- phase shifting
- reproductive control
- sleep- promotion - role as "hypnotic"
- potential side effects
1) What is PHASE- SHIFTING in relation to MELATONIN?

2) What are some sleep promoting effects?
PHASE SHIFTING

1) It has potential utility as a treatment for sleep- wake schedule disorders

2) Sleep- promoting effects involve large doses of melatonin and produce sedation

- has been successful in treating elderly with insomnia- - because have low levels of melatonin

- difficult to separate effects from phase- shifting properties
What are a few sleep disorders to consider?
!) DELAYED SLEEP APNEA
2) ADVANCED SLEEP PHASE
3) BLINDNESS
4) DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED
5) SHIFT WORK
6) IRREGULAR SLEEP- WAKE RHYTHM
7) NON-24 HOUR SLEEP- WAKE RHYTHM
What are SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS?
SLEEP WAKE CYCLES are when one's sleep is out of phase with conventional sleep- wake times or out of phase with other elements of the CR

- causes sleep disturbance
What are characteristics of DELAYED SLEEP PHASE SYNDROME? (5)
1) Inability to fall asleep at desired / appropriate times

2) Inability to arise at desired / appropriate times

3) Normal sleep on ad lib schedule

4) More commonly seen in younger age groups

5) Social and occupational disturbance
What may cause DSPS? (5)
1) Age-related change in circadian oscillator (?)

2) Change in interaction of oscillator / entrainment with sleep homeostatic processes

3) Behavioral

4) Psychopathology / depression

5) Limits of phase advancement
What are some treatments for DSPS?
1) Schedule change?

2) Phototheraphy
- bright light in early morning

3) Melatonin
- administer during early evening
* NEUROCHEMISTRY/ ANATOMY *
*
Where does SENSORY in put for WAKE cycle come from?

What neurons show high firing rates while you are awake?
Sensory input - >reticular formation

1) Cholinergic neurons of lateral dorsal tegmentum(LDT) and pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) show high firing rates during wake

2) Noradrenergic cells of locus coeruleus show higher firing rates during wake
What is the pathway for WAKE CYCLE?

What is the ASCENDING RETICULAR SYSTEM? (SEE SLIDE 68)
Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) projects to thalamus/ hypothalamus/ basal forebrain cortex, producing desynchronization
What is the function of OREXIN in the WAKE cycle?
*
What happens in the brain during NREM sleep generation? (6)
1) Ventrolateral preoptic area (GABA) active

2) Reduced firing of ARAS

3) Sensory input blocked at thalamus

4) Spindle production - reticular thalamic nuclei

5) Slow-wave production - thalamus / cortex

6) Decreased firing rate of LC and raphe neurons (5HT)
What happens during REM sleep generation?
1) Marked drop-out of neuronal firing from locus coeruleus (NE) and raphe neurons (5HT)

2) “REM-on” cells of pontine nuclei - increased firing of LDT and PPT neurons

3) Generation of PGO spikes

4) Descending motor inhibition
What are a few WAKE- PROMOTING SUBSTANCES? (6)
1) Acetylcholine
2) Norepinephrine
3) Histamine
4) Dopamine
5) Serotonin (?)
6) Orexin (?)
What are a few SLEEP- PROMOTING SUBSTANCES? (4)
1) Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
- Major inhibitory transmitter

2) Adenosine

3) Endorphins - sensory information

4) Cholecystokinin - gut
What is the function of ADENOSINE? (5)
1) Adenosine inhibits basal forebrain ACh neurons

2) Consistently high concentrations in wake

3) Declining concentrations in SWS

4) Specificity to basal forebrain site questioned

5) Concentrations a function of cellular metabolic activity
What is CAFFEINE?
Caffeine, major adenosine inhibitor, and therefore inhibits the homeostatic promotion of sleep by adenosine, higher doses interferes with sleep and shuts sleep off after a period of time altogether
* SLEEP FUNCTION *
*
NREM

1) How do you restore NREM? (6)
A) RESTORE
1) Maintenance of alertness / function

2) Rebound (nREM/REM) after sleep deprivation

3) Increased secretion of anabolic steroids in sleep

4) Decreased secretion of catabolic steroids

5) Tissue repair / restoration (fibromyalgia)

6) Decline in physiologic functions

B) CONSERVE

C) PROTECTIVE STATE
2) What can REM sleep help you with? (6)
1) Learning / memory
2) Memory purging
3) Promotion of development in young
4) Maintenance of circuitry
5) Restoration of NE transmitter function
- Locus coeruleus
6) Vigilance
3) How much sleep do you neeD?
Sleep need varies from one person to the next
4) How does sleep play a role in MEMORY FUNCTION?
Memory function (SWS)

1) Spatial learning paradigm shows firing rates of co-active cells increase in SWS following task acquisition

2) Pattern suggests “playback” feature from hippocampal to cortex may be involved in learning

3) REM deprivation following perceptual learning task abolishes performance gain

4) Previously learned information unaffected

5) SWS disruption produces no interference

6) Possible role of acetylcholine tracts in memory consolidation
How might partial sleep deprivation affect you?
Vigilance decreases with 1 night of 3 hr or 2 nights of 5 hours of sleep (Wilkinson, 1968)

As sleep restriction proceeds beyond 1-2 nights, cumulative effects are seen
What might people who exp sleep deprivation be at risk for?

Who does this apply to?
Persons who experience limited sleep durations may be at risk for developing cumulative waking neurobehavioral deficits.

May apply to nightshift workers, medical personnel, sleep apnea patients, etc…
* NOTE: sleep loss is cumulative
*