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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Natural Immunity
acquired as part of normal life experiences
Artificial immunity
acquired through medical procedures such as immunization
Active immunity
results when a person is challenged with an antigen that stimulates the production of antibodies; it creates memory and takes time; lasting
Passive immunity
preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory acts immediately and is short term
Natural active immunity
acquired upon infection and recovery; childhood viral diseases
Natural passive immunity
acquired by a child through placenta and breastmilk; IgG; antibodies agaisnt tetanus, diptheria, and pertussis readily cross the placenta
Artifical active immunity
vaccination; acquired through inoculation with a selected antigen
Artificial passive immunity
administration of immune serum or globulin receive antibodies not antigens
antibodies fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a molecule to keep it from functioning normally
a monomer produced by a plasma cell in a primary response and by memory cells; most prevalent antibody; neutralizes toxins, opsonizes, and fixes complement; only antibody capable of crossing the placenta
significant component of the mucous and serous secretions of the salivary glands, intestine, nasal membrane; coats the surfvace of these membranes
huge molecule composed of five monomers; the first class synthesized following the host's fisrt encounter with the antigen
monomer fou in minuscule amounts in the serum; main function is to serve as a receptor for antigen on b cells; helps trigger B cell activation
uncommon blood component unless one has a allergies or a parasitic worm infection
the use of a physical process or a chemical agent to destroy vegetative pathogens
process that destroys or removes all viable microorganisms including viruses
chemicals applied to body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens
any cleansing technique hat removes debris, microorganisms, and toxins (soaps and detergeants)
completely free of all fe forms; including spores and viruses
heat less than 100 degree Celsiuso liquid; flash method heats liquid to 71 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds; targets non-spore forming milk borne-pathogens; Salmonella and Listeria; reduces overall microbial count; also applied to beer and wine
Autoclave specifities
uses steam under pressure; 15 psi/121 degrees Celsius/ 10-40 minutes
a process in which microorganisms or other particles are coated with specific antibodies so that they will be more readily recognized by phagocytes, which dispose of them
the capacity for antibodies to aggregate antigens is the consequence of their cross-linking cells or particles to large clumps; renders microbes immobile and enhances their phagocytosis
Thermal death times
defined as the shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specific temperature
a combination of iodine and an organic carrier that is a moderate-level disinfectant and antiseptic; example betadyne
Gamma & Xray radiation
used to sterilize objects; ca kill endospores, vegetative forms, and shows relative resistance
gradual withdrawal of H2O from cells by exposure to room air; leading to metabolic inhibition; used for preservation techniques, not effective infection control
First Line of Defense
inborn physical barriers such as skin, mucous membranes; chemical barriers include lysozyme in tears and saliva, and gastric acidity, genetic baries can be a lack of susceptibility to an infectious agent due to the specialization of a microbe to an exact host; they all stop the pathogen at the portal of entry
Second Line of Defense
non-specfic; protective reactions in fluid compartments such as phagocytosis; comes into play if infectious agent makes it past the surface defenses; exampes are inflammatory response; phagocytosis; interferon
Third Line of Defense
defenses aimed at a specific pathogen and give a long term form of protection that will come into play if the pathogen is ever encountered again
a mature leukocyte that contains noticable granules in a Wright stain
a mature granulocyte present in peripheral circulation, exhibiting a multilobular nucleus and numerous cytoplasmic granues that retain a neutral stain; is an active phagocytic cell in bacterial infections; 55-90%
readily dstinguished in a stain preparation by their larger, orange to red granules; bilobed; numerous in the bone marrow and spleen; involved in inflammation, allergic reactions; and target helminth worms and fungi; 1-3%
a motile polymorphonuclear leukocyte that binds IgE; granules contain mediators of anaphylaxis and atopy; role in allergic responses; 0.5%
a toxin that has been rendered non-toxic but is still capable of eliciting the formationof protective antitoxin antibodies; used in vaccines
Trojan horse technique
genetic material from a slecte infectious agent is inserted into a live carrie microbe that is non-pathogenic; Vaccinia, the virus originally used to vaccinate for smallpox, and adenovirus have proved practical agents for this technique
Herd immunity
individuals immune to a communicable infectious disease will not harbr it, thus reducing the occurence of that pathogen, thus people who have not been immunized will have less of a chance of obtaining the disease
Serological testing
the testing of an individuals serum to distinguish current and past infections; desirable qualities of serological tests specficity & sensitvity
in order for WBCs to leave the blood vessels and enter the tissues, they adhere to the inner walls of the samller blood vessels, from this positio, they are posied to migate of the blood into the tissue spaces
Titer and how is it measured
in immunochemistry, a measure of antiody level in a patient, determined by agglutination methods;
Clonal expansion and selection
early undiferentiated lymphocytes in the embryo and fetus undergo a continuous series of divisions an dgenetic changes that generate hundreds of millions of different cell types , each carryng a specific particular receptor specificity
Membrane attack complex
the functioning end product of complement cascade is a large ring shaped protein, it digest holes in the cell membranes of bactera, cells and enveloped viruses ,thereby detroying them