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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Absolute Monarchy
divine right is justification
Charles Five (hapsburg)
King of Spain, HRE, and Naples
Charles V- Wars
versus German Princes in HRE (turks and French)
Peace of Augsburg
Prince chose religion of his people
Phillip II
won Lepanto/failed "inquisition"/defeated by Elizabeth (england)
William the Silent
lead the Netherlands to Independance
Spanish Armada- why it failed
Type of ship, style of fight, multi-national, and Protestant Winds
Thirty Years War
Austrian Hapsburgs(catholic) and the Bohemian(calvinist) revolts new nations join in
Gustavus Adophus
national army, well trained soldiers, flitlock musket
Peace of Westphailia (for the Thirty Years War)
German states pick own religion/HRE is next to powerless symbolic/France and Sweden gain territory/ German states devastated
James I (Stuart) and Charles I
(James) ruled with "absolute power"...Charles abused his powers
Problems leading to English Civil War
Charles raised taxes w/o consent; dissolved parliament as well
Naseby
battle where Charles was Defeated
Roundheads vs. Cavaliers
R-middle class (short hair); C-royalists (curly hair)
Cromwell & His military dictatorship
(interregrum) Blue Laws: took day to day pleasures away from the people..tolerated all religions except catholic atheists
The Restoration/Charles II
house of lords and authority of the church were restored (Test Act)
Whigs and Tories
W-upper class: opposed catholics/ T-Favored James II as king(whighs didnt)
Glorious Revolution/James II(brother of Charles II)
Glorious Revolution happened because people didnt want James' catholic heir to be king
William and Mary
called in to replace James II
English Bill of Rights
-civil rights and prohibited suspension of laws
Hobbes
"Levesthas" humans are nasty, poor/absolute ruler necessary
Locke
humans lived in equality/made gov to protect rights, and if it didnt it should be overthrown
Gerorge I and the English Parliamentary system of Gov't/ Walpole
voters vote the house of commons. The house of commons votes the House of Lords as well as the Prime Minister(leader) PM apoints cabinet
French Civil War
Hugenots(Henry of Navarre) Bourbon dynasty takes throne-converts to catholicism in order to rule
Edict of Nantes
gives Hugenots religous freedom/makes Catholicism Frances official religion
Cardinal Richelieu
ruled france for Louis XIII/took power from nobles/ Letter 'd Cachet(arrest warrants)/intendant system(civil servants of the king)
Louis XIV
married to dead King's sister, wants Phillip of Anjou(grandson to be king)
Versailles
keeps nobles occupied power taken away
War of spanish Succesion
Nations fought over whether someone could be king of both France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
Phillp is king/France and Spain may never be ruled by same person creates a "Balance of Power"
Prussia
Berlin=Capitol
Frederick William I (Hohenzollern)
famed military w/ help of "Junkers" (nobles) Great Elector
Frederick the Great wars with Austria
Marie Theresa (Austria) has alliance w/RUssia (pull out) and France (fight Britain) Frederick wins barely
Partition of Poland
takes it for Prussia
New Hapsburg empire
In Balkans
Ivan the Great(III)
started to liberate territory in Russia from mongols
Ivan the Terrible(IV)
first to use "czar"/forced "boyars"(nobles) to accept his authority
Time of Troubles
civil war *end of dynasty*.war bettween noble family
ROmanov
boyars elcet Mincahall Romanov as Czar
Peter the Great
Great Norther War-fights Charles XII(Sweden) Charles won at Navra/Peter won at Poltava)
Window to the West- Baltic sea land (expansion.
Catherine the Great
first Enlightended despot
fought Ottoman Conflict. She got "Warm Water Port" (share of Black Sea and access to the Meditteranean)
Enlightened Despot
Dictator with Reforms
-sought better economic conditions
-free speech
-religious liberty
Enlightenment
Period of time in France where people became interested in politics etc
Philosophe
nobilty and middle class (making mankind better-belief)
Relations of Newton and Locke to Enlightenment
Locke=people molded by experience
Newton=world like a machine
Montesquieu
"chekcs and balances" separation of power/ three types of gov
-lawes to govern society
Voltaire/Deism
Criticized Christianity/Deism=God=mechanic, universal=clock god
Diderot
wrote Encyclopedia
Rousseau
believed humans are governed by general will/form of communism
Adam Smith/Capitalism/The Wealth of Nations
Smith=Laissez-faire=let people do what they want
Thought gov shouldnt interfere w/ economy
trickle down effect=(Supply and Demand)
Wollstonecraft
aadvocated Women's rights
Estates System
1st/2nd Estates=600 members and 3rd estate=600members
only 3rd estates pays taxes
Tennis Court Oath
creates National Assembly: storming of Bastille
National Assembly and its reforms
New constitiution/undo Feudalism/Declaratioin of Rights of man lessens power of Catholic Church
1.Constitutional Monarchs-conservaive
2.Moderates (Girondins)
3.Radicals (Jacobins)
Flight to Varennes/War breaks out
Monarch tries to escape
War-France, Austria, Prussia
National Convention/Jacobins
NC-radical gov./Commitee of Public Safety (rids nation of internal enemies
Robespierre
behind Reign of Terror(Ventose Laws-take from rich and give to poor)
Reign of Terror
attempted to abolish Christianity
Cult of Supreme Being
GUILLOTINE
Directory
two house legislature/5 man committee-inflation/corruption
Rise of Napoleon
Military Dictatorship
defeats Astrians in Italy/Nelson defeats him at "Battle of NIle"
First Consul
only wealthy citizens could participate
Napoleon's Domestic Program/Napoleonic code
equality for all citizens/peace w/ Catholic Church
Napoleon's conquests/Re-drawn map of Europe
enlarges France/states conquered forced to sign treaties of alliance
Trafalgar
Napoleon's defeated by British off coast of Spain
Austerlitz
defeats Russians and Austrians
Tilsit
gives him control of most of Continental Europe
Continental System
economic means of defeating British/closed uropean markets to British Goods
Orders in Council (by British to counter Continental System)
stopped ships headed toward Napoleon controlled ports
Peninsula War
guerilla war in spain
Napoleon puts brother as King- they revolt
INvasion of Russia
Czar Alexander breaks treaty/invades-Russians use scorched earth tactic Frenchfail
Elba
Wellington defeits him at Leipzeig/(Paris captured)
Napoleon exilled to Elba
Hunred Days/Waterloo
goes against the British and Prussian force and is defeated
St. Helena
exhiled here until death
Metternich
Austrian Prince (hated liberalism and nationalism)
Industrial Revolution
began in Britain because of deposits of Coal and Iron (also raw materials from colonies0
Watt
invented steam engine
Textile and Transportion advances
cotton/iron/bridges, steam engines, trains
Problems after Industrialization
pollution, towns overcroded
Socialism
(utopia and Radical)-
Utopia: peopl would share riches with the poor
Radical:revolution
Marx and Engels (work together);their major ideas
-Marx wrote "communist Manifesto" and "Das Capital"
-class struggle
-capatalists exploit labor of workers (Proletariat)
-Government in name of workers control everything
Dirsreali and Gladston
Main PRime Minister
Disraeli=Tori
Gladstone=Whig
Tried to outdo each other
Growth of Democracy in Britain
1.ll men could vote
2. Secret Ballot
3. Public Education
House of comons is passed bill to limit Lords Power
Louis XVIII and Charles X
tried to restore absolution but were overthrown by a revolution
Louis Philipp
"citizen king" (liberal) poor overthrow him
Napoleon III
nationalist (working mans emperor) focused on lower classes
set up puppet state in Mexico (Maximillian)
Colonized N. Africa
Third Republic
universal male suffrage
1848 Revolutions
after French Rev. sparks revolutions all over Europe(Cause Metternich to be fired)
Cavour and Role of Piedmont-Sardinia)
Cavour- Prime Minister of Italy (econmic expansions) Piedmont
Unified N. Italy
Garibaldi
(red shirts) conctrolled Sicily and Naples-turned conquests over to Peidmont
Steps to Unify Italy
Ventia gained from beating Austrians/French withdraw from Rome
Bismark
Prime Minister of Prussia/Had backing of Wilhelm I
Three wars leading to Unified Germany
1. vs. AUstria
2. Danish
3. France/ Prussia
Franco-Prussian War
Germans and Prussians vs. France
Causse= Sneakily got Louis Nap. Bonaparte to declare war on prussia
Course- Paris Surrenders
effects- France paid 5 billion, Francs and gave up Alsace-Loraine to Germany
Decembrist Revolt
Nicholas I takes power(Austria sets him firmly in place)
Alexander II
becomes Czar/more liberal/"emancipation edict" ends serfdom