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60 Cards in this Set

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Have a listening goal. They want to know more about a topic or they want to hear a particular speaker. Consequently, they are self-selected in that they voluntarily and intentionally seek out an opportunity to hear a particular speech.
Motivated Audience
identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity
demographic analysis
refers to a group's common heritage and cultural traditions, usually national or religious in origin
ethnicity
relevant or significant
salient
categories, often associated with stererotypes, based on physical characteristics
race
culturally constructed category such as race or gender
social category
clusters of traits culturally labeled as masculine, feminine, or androgynous
gender
the speaker's reputation or expertise that makes them believable even before they say a word -
prior or extrinsic credibility
obvious knowledge the speaker shows during the speech
demonstrated or intrinsic credibility
final impression listeners have of a speaker
Terminal credibility
counting; helps your listeners understand the extent of a problem or an issue; the number of ppl injured annually, etc.
enumeration
Rules to ennumeration
1.) round your numbers up or down. Listeners find it hard to remember exact numbers, and they change rapidly 2.) make numbers come alive by comparing them to something already that your listener's experience
Points out similarities between things
comparison or analogy
compare actual things that are similar in important ways
literal analogy
stating differences between two things
contrasts
highlighing similarities between two otherwise, dissimilar things, requires an imaginative connection
figurative analogies
these people may not have scientific facts and related theories, but can tell you how it feels to be involved as a participant with firsthand knowledge
peer testimony
looking back to something from your introduction and repeating it in your conclusion
'echo'
a subject into subtopics, each of which is part of the whole
topical organization
generally develop how many main points?
3 to 5
canon of disposition
guidelines for organization, named by the romans
the sequencing, what comes first and what follows
the chronological pattern
"logics of meaning and action" that define our obligations as well as our taboos. beliefs, attitudes, and values (BAV) along with behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden.
Core Cultural Resources
"the good person, skilled in speaking"
Vir Bonum, Dicendi Peritus
static, that interferes with both the message and its reception.
noise
static, that interferes with both the message and its reception. a sore throat
external noise
static, that interferes with both the message and its reception. listener's worries over being hungry
internal noise
static, that interferes with both the message and its reception. such as a cultural differences that make the message irrelevant or offensive as when the topic runs into the listener's cultural norms
cultural noise
Theory proposing that face-to-face conversation is the prototype that is foundational to all other communication
dialogical theory of communication
speaker's and listener's mutual engagement with the ideas, which allows them to jointly forge meanings
respons-ibility
cultural norms we rely upon when we participate in a specific type of communication; meanings lie in people;
speech genres
to get the other person to come to understand accept your meanings
the purpose of communication
display a linear form one or more variables that fluctuate over a time period; best for showing variables like college enrollment over two decades; also good for showing the relationship of two or more variables such as a comparison of males and females in the same time period.
line graphs
a set of principles, standards, norms, guidelines, for creating the content of your speech; referring to the use of language in public speaking 1.)invention 2.) disposition 3.) style 4.) memory 5.) delivery
canon of rhetoric
a specialized, technical vocabulary and style that serves special groups (doctors, lawyers) interest, activities, and so on.
jargon
the use of exaggeration for effect
hyperbole
saying 'um' or 'uh' or other sounds during a pause; many professionals and beginners use 'ums' but too many can be distracting.
filled (vocalized) pauses
presenting a speech with little advanced notice and as you create it. takes the least amount of prep and rehearsal, given spur of the moment;
impromptu speeches
preparing and rehearsing a speech carefully in advance, but choosing the exact wording as you deliver the speech; most common method in the workplace and classroom;
extemporaneous delivery
you write out your entire speech and read it; not recommended in the classroom or in most workplace situations because its the most inactive delivery method; euologies and award speeches; radio/television speeches;
manuscript delivery
the justification or reasoning that you and your listeners use to connect your evidence with your claim; how officers justify an arrest,
warrant
a generalization or principle
the premise
an attack on the messenger rather than the message; personal attack, against the person, discounts or demeans the messenger
ad hominem
defined as the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner; find the delivery that works best for you in any given situation
communicative competence
incorporates vocal variety, fluency, good use of gestures, and eye contact to create an impression of dynamism as well as credibility
confident style
calmer, softer, slower, and less intense, but still maintains good eye contact and gestures
conversational style
presenting the words, images, or ideas of others as if they were your own
plagiarism
knowing, intentional plagiarism; this happens when students borrow, buy, or steal someone Else's speech or written outline and present it as if it were their own work; it is knowingly and intentionally done.
deliberate fraud
plagiarist copy entire paragraphs word-for-word articles into a paper or speech without using quotation marks or naming the sources next to the material.
cut-and-paste plagiarism
the plagiarist changes or translates a few words but keeps the basic structure and ideas of the original intact, and fails to credit the source next to the material, even though they might supply a list of resources at the end of the paper.
improper paraphrase
if you make up information or guess at numbers but present them as factual without checking its accuracy;
fabrication
Sometimes the speaker's language is a barrier and a diverse culture includes many language variations; language, vocabulary;
linguistic barriers
references to cultural allusions, or culturally specific historical, literary, and religious sources.
cultural barriers
personal distractions can obstruct your listening; physical factors, psychological factor; prejudice; stereotypes
personal barriers
used to sort out competing claims for your allegiance, your beliefs, your money, and your time. analyze evidence, ponder implications, and evaluate the merits of various appeals
critical listening
Request for more lengthy responses; invite longer answers that could be developed in a variety of ways,
Open questions
Useful for speeches about places or things made up of several parts. Like a campus guide leading a tour of the library and what is on each floor, the order doesn't matter; top to bottom, side to side, or bottom to top;
the spatial organizational pattern
repetitive pattern that presents variations of themes and ideas, with major points presented at the crests; common in ceremonial speaking; examples lead up to another major point and conclusions wind down and lead the audience gradually from your topic.
wave organizational pattern
the feelings or emotions aroused in the listeners. this is potentially emotional topic; influences listener's emotions
affective effects
summaries or interpretations of an event or a person provided by nonparticipants
secondary sources