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64 Cards in this Set

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DEFINE SYMPATRIC
SPECIES THAT OCCUR TOGETHER
THE INABILITY FOR SYMPATRIC SPECIES TO EXCHANGE GENES MAY ALLOW THEM TO REMAIN ______
EXTINCT
POPULATIONS WHOSE MEMBERS DO NOT MATE WITH EACHOTHER OR WHO CANNOT PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING ARE SAID TO BE ________ _______
REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED
WHAT 2 THINGS CAUSE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION?
2 DIFFERENT SPECIES AND CANNOT INTERBREED OR NATURAL CONDITIONS
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS PREVENT _____ _____ B/W SPECIES
GENETIC CHANGE
_______ IS THE EVOLUTION OF NEW SPECIES FORM EXISTING SPECIES
SPECIATION
WHAT ARE 2 DIFFERENT USES OF THE WORD SPECIATION?
ANAGENESIS AND CLADOGENESIS
______ IS VERTICAL SPECIATION;ARBATRARY DEMARCATION OF 1 LINEAGE OVER TIME
ANAGENESIS
WHICH IS OUR FOCUS,CLADOGENESIS OR ANAGENESIS
CLADOGENESIS
______ IS THE SPLITTING OF 1 LINEAGE INTO 2 OR MORE
CLADOGENESIS
A _____ IS DEFINED AS THE SMALLEST EVOLUTIONARY INDEPENDENT UNITS
SPECIES
THE ______ _____ _____ STATES THAT A SPECIES CONSISTS OF POPULATIONS THAT ACTUALLY OR POTENTIALLY INTERBREED OR PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING
BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT
THE ______ _____ _____ ALSO SUGGESTS THAT ORGANISMS THAT CANT OR DONT INTERBREED AND PRODUCE FERTILE OFFPRING BELONG TO A DIFFERENT SPECIES
BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT
THE ______ ______ ______ STATES THAT A SPECIES IS A SET OF POPULATIONS THAT HAVE A # OF SHARED,DERIVED CHARACTER STATES.
THE SMALLEST ________ GROUPS
PHYLOGENETIC SPECIES CONCEPT;MONOPHYLETIC
THE _____ ______ _____ STATES THAT A SPECIES IS A SET OF POPULATIONS THAT SI MORPHOLOGICALLY DISTINCT OF OTHER SUCH SETS
MORPHOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT
______ ISOLATING MECHANISMS PREVENT FORMATION OF ZYGOTES
PREZYGOTIC
_______ ISOLATING MECHANISMS PREVENT PROPER FUNCTIONING OF ZYGOTES AFTER THEY FORM
POSTZYGOTIC
EVEN IF 2 SPECIES OCCUR IN SAME AREA THEY MAY UTILIZE DIFFERENT PORTIONS OF THE ENVIROMENT AND THUS NOT HYBRIDIZE B/C THEY DONT ENCOUNTER EACHOTHER. DESCRIBES...
ECOLOGICAL ISOLATIONS IN PREZYGOTIC ISOLATING MECHANISMS
RELATED SPECIES OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS BIRDS OFTEN DIFFER IN THEIR COURTSHIP RITUALS WHICH TENDS TO KEEP THESE SPECIES DISTINCT IN NATURE EVEN IF THEY INHABIT THE SAME PLACES.
EXAMPLE OF...
BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION IN PREZYGOTIC ISOLATING MECHANISMS
______ SPECIES AVOID MATING WITH THE WRONG SPECIES IN A VARIETY OF WAYS...SUCH AS COMMUNICATION
SYMPATRIC
SOME SPECIES RELY ON CHEMICAL SIGNALS FOR MATING CALLED _______
PHEROMONES
FEMALE MOTHS RELY ON _______ FPR MATING
PHEROMONES(CHEMICAL SIGNALS)
_______ _______ IS WHEN SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES
TEMPORAL ISOLATION
_______ ______ IS WHEN STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES PREVENT MATING B/W SOME RELATED SPECIES OF ANIMALS
MECHANICAL ISOLATION
IN ANIMALS THAT SHED THEIR GAMETES DIRECTLY INTO WATER,EGGS AND SPERM DERIVED FORM DIFFERENT SPECIES MAY NOT ATTRACT ONE ANOTHER IS KNOWN AS...
PREVENTION OF GAMETE FUSION
______ ______ IS WEN SPECIES OCCUR IN DIFFERENT PLACES WHICH ARE OFTEN SEPERATED BY A PHYSICAL BARRIER
GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
IN HYBRIDS,THE GENETIC COMPLEMENTS OF 2 SPECIESMAY BE SO DIFFERENT THAT THEY CANNOT FUNCTION TOGETHER NORMALLY IN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
AN EXAMPLE OF...
POSTZYGOTIC ISOLATING MECHANISMS
HYBRIDIZATION B/W SHEEP AND GOATS IS AN EXAMPLE OF..
POSTZYGOTIC ISOLATING MECHANISMS
AFRICAN ELEPHANTS FELL INTO 2 DISTINCT CLADES...
FOREST ELEPHANT(L.cyclotis)AND SAVANNAH ELEPHANT(L.africannus)
THE BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT STATES THAT EACH SPECIES HAS A SPERATE ____ _____
GENE POOL
ALLOPATRIC ISOLATION IS AKA THE _______ _______ MODEL
GEOGRAPHIC
ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION: _______ HOMELAND
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION:
_______ HOMELAND
DIFFERENT;SHARED
IN ______ ______ REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION EVOLVES WITHOUTGEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
SYMPATRIC ISOLATION
NAME THE 2 MAIN MECHANISMS IN SYMPATRIC SPECIATION
POLYPLOIDIZATION AND HOST-RACE SPECIALIZATION
THE BACKDROP IN THE ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION MODEL IS _______ _______
GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION
AT A LATER DATE,THE BARRIER DISAPPEARS AND THE ONCE ISOLATED POPULATIONS COME INTO CONTACT AGAIN. THIS IS CALLED...
SECONDARY CONTACT
SELECTION AGAINST INTERBREEDING MAY RESULT IN EVOLUTIONOF INCREASED REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION.THIS IS CALLED...
REINFORCEMENT
THE COMMON ______ SNAKE IS A WIDELY DISTRIBUTED GEOGRAHICALLY ISOLATED VARIABLE SPECXIES
GARTER
A POSSIBLE EXAMPLE OF ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION IS EASTERN AND WESTERN ________.
SIMILARILY RELATED SPECIES ARE CALLED _______ SPECIES OR ______ SPECIES
MEADOWLARKS;SIBLING;CRYPTIC
SELECTION MAY REINFORCE _______ _______
ISOLATING MECHANISMS
PIED AND COLLARD FLYCATCHERS ARE EXAMPLES OF _______
REINFORCEMENT
WHEN COMPLETELY ISOLATED POPULATIONS COME TOGETHER ____ _____ IMMEDIATLY BEGINS TO OCCUR B/W THE SPECIES.
RESULTING IN HYBRIDS INFERIOR BUT NOT COMPLETELY ______
GENE FLOW;UNFERTILE
PROCESS OF _______ IS DRIVEN BY NATURAL SELECTION FAVORING PERFECTION OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
REINFORCEMENT
REINFORCEMENT IS COMMON
T/F
FALSE
POLYPLOIDY IS COMMONLY SEEN IN ______
PLANTS
_______ STATES THAT ALL CHROMOS MAY ARISE FROM A SINGLE SPESIES
AUTOPOLYPLOIDY
WHICH IS MORE COMMON?
AUTOPOLYPLOIDY OR ALLOPOLYPLOIDY
ALLOPOLYPLOIDY
______ OCCURS SOMETIMES WHEN 2 SPECIES HYBRIDYZE
ALLOPOLYPLOIDY
_______ _______ CAN CAUSE A POP TO CONTAIN INDIVIDUALS CONTAINING 2 DIFFERENT PHENOTYPES
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
_______ IS THE INCREASE IN # OF SETS OF CHROMOS BEYOND 2(DIPLOID)
PLYPLOIDIZATION
IN _______,POLYPLOID IS SELF FERTILE BUT HYBRID WITH PARENTAL SPECIES IS UNFERTILE
ALLOPOLYPLOIDIZATION
ALLOPOLYPLOIDIZATION IS COMMON IN _____ _____ AND ______
FLOWERING PLANTS;MOSSES
IN ANIMALS,ALOPOLYPLOIDIAZTION MAY OCCUR IN...
INSECTS,FISH,AND SALAMANDERS
IN ALLO..., SPECIATION CAN BE _______.
NEW SPECIES EXISTS AS SOON AS ____ DOUBLING OCCURS
INSTANTANEOUS;CHROMO
ADAPTIVE RADIATION IS COMMON ON _____ ISLANDS.
IT REQUIRES BOTH _____ AND ______TO DIFFERENT HABITATS
OCEANIC;SPECIATION AND ADAPTION
_______ ________ IS THE ADAPTION DRIVEN BY NEED TO MINIMIZE COMPETITION FOR AVAILABLE RESOURSES WITH OTHER SPECIES
CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT
______ ______ OCCURS WHEN A SINGLE OR SMALL GROUP OF ANCESTRAL SPECIESRAPIDLY DIVERSIFIES INTO A LARGE # OF DESCENDENT SPESIES
ADAPTIVE RADIATION
IN ADAPTIVE RADIATION,GROUP RADIATES TO OCCUPY EMPTY ______
NICHES
MAMMALIAN ADAPTIVE RADIATION PRECEEDED BY EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS BY END OF ______
CRETOCEUS
______ _______ IS A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT THE TEMPO AND MODE OF EVOLUTION.
PUNCUATED EQULIBRIUM
______ AND _____ CAME UP WITH THE HYPOTHESIS PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
ELDRIDGE AND GOULD
WHO ACCUSED PALENTOLIGISTS OF SEEING WUT THEY EXPECTED TO SEE
ELDRIDGE AND GOULD
ELDRIDGE AND GOULD SUGGESTED THAT MOST SPECIES SPEND MOST OF THERE TIME ON EARTH ___ _____,UNDER STABILIZING SELECTION
NOT CHANGING
HOW MANY GREAT EXTINCTIONS WERE THERE?
5