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108 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS THE RAW MATERIAL OF EVOLUTION?
GENETIC VARIATION
WHAT PHRASE DID DARWIN USE FOR EVOLUTION?
DECENT WITH MODIFICATION
_______ REFERS TO HOW AN ENTITY CHANGES THRU TIME
EVOLUTION
THRU TIME SPECUES ACCUMULATE DIFFERENCES. AS A RESULT,WEN NEW SPECIES ARE FORME,THE DESCENDENT SPECIES DIFFER FROM THEIR ANCESTORS.
EXAMPLE OF WUT?
EVOLUTION
WHAT DID DARWIN PROPOSE AS THE MECHANISM FOR EVOLUTION
NATURAL SELECTION
WHAT ARE 4 POSSIBLE MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE?
CHANCE EVENTS, MUTAION,NIGRATION,NATURAL SELECTION
_______ EVOLVE,________ DO NOT
MEANING THAT EVOLUTON IS A _______ OF POPULATIONS BUT A _______ OF INDIVIDUALS
POPULATIONS;INDIVIDUALS
PROPERTY;FUNCTION
WHO SAID THAT EVOLUTION IS A CHANGE IN A LINEAGE OF POPULATIONS B/W GENETICS?
RIDLEY
WHO SAID EVOLUTION IS ANY GENETIC AND RESULTING PHENOTYPIC CHANGE IN ORGANISMS FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION
PURVES
(RIVAL THEORY)WHO SAID EVOLUTION OCCURED BY THE INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS?
LAMARK
ACCORDING TO ______,INDIVIDUALS PASSED ON TO THEIR OFFSPRING BODY AND BEJAVIOR CHANGES ACQUIRED DURING THEIR LIVES
LAMARK
LAMARK HYPOTHESIZED THAT _______ ACQUIRED IN A LIFETIME IS PASSED ON TO OFFSPRING
VARIATION
_______ _______ IS THE STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF GENES IN POPULATIONS
POPULATION GENETICS
WHO SAID THE BEHAVIOR OF GENES AS TWO INDIVIDUALS REPRODUCE AND PASS TRAITS TO OFFSPRONG
MENDEL
MANY _____ HAVE ALLELIC VARIANTS
LOCI
ALLELS HAVE DIFFERENT _______,SOME ARE RARE AND SOME ARE COMMON.
FREQUENCIES
GENETIC VARIATION IS ULTIMATELY DUE TO...
MUTATION,A CHANGE IN NT SEQUENCE
WHAT ARE THE 2 LEVELS OF GENETIC VARIATION
NT LEVEL AND PROTEIN LEVEL
IN THE PROTEIN LEVEL OF GENETIC VARIATION, THE EFFECT ON PROTEIN CAN VARY FROM _____ TO ______
NIL;PROFOUND
_______ ________ IS DEFINED AS THE PRECSENCE IN A POPULATION OF MORE THAN 1 ALLELE AT A LOCUS
GENETIC POLYMORPHISM
MANY LOCI IN A POPULATION HAVE MORE THAN 1 ALLELE AT _______,GREATER THAN WOULD OCCUR,DUE TO _______ ALONE
FREQUENCIES;MUTATION
WHAT MADE IT POSSIBLE TO ENZYMES AND OTHER PROTEINS DIRECTLY?
ELECTROPHORESIS
MOST POPULATIONS OF _____ AND _____ ARE POLYMORPHIC
INSECTS AND PLANTS
MOST LOCI HAVE MORE THAN 1 ALLELE AT A FREQUENCY OF ____
COUNT _____;INTRONS ARE MORE VARIABLE
> OR = 5%;EXONS
GENETIC POLYMORPHISM INVOLVES THE PROBABAILITY THAT A RANDOMLY SELECTED LOCUS WILL BE _______ FOR A RANDOMLY SELECTED INDIVIDUAL
HETEROZYGOUS
_______ _______ IS WHEN THE OFFSPRING IS EXPECTED TO BE PHENOTYPICALLY INTERMEDIATE RELATIVE TO THEIR PARENTS
BLENDING INHERITANCE
IF BLENDING INHERITANCE IS CORRECT WHAT WOULD THE RESULT BE?
ANY NEW GENETIC VARIANT WOULD DISSAPPEAR IN SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS
ONE INCORRECT INTERPRETATION OF MENDELS WORK WAS THAT...
DOMINAT ALLELS WOULD INCREASE IN FREQUENCY AND REPLACE RECESSIVE ALLELS
WHAT EXPLAINS WHY GENES PERSIST IN POPULATIONS AND EXPLAINS BEHAVIOR OF ALLELES WHEN ALL OTHER THINGS ARE EQUAL?
THE HARDY-WEINBURG PRINCIPLE
_______ AND ______ POINTED OUT THAT THE PROPORTIONS OF THE GENOTYPES IN A POPULATION WILL REMAIN CONSTANT FROM GEN TO GEN AS LONG AS THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS ARE MET
HARDY AND WEINBURG
WHAT ARE HARDY AND WEINBURGS 5 "NECESSARY CONDITIONS"?
POP VERY LARGE,MATING IS RANDOM,NO MUTATION,NO MIGRATION AND NO SELECTION
______ AND _______ OF ALLELES ONLY AFFECT HOW AN ALLELE IS EXPRESSED
DOMINANCE AND RECESSIVENESS
DOMINANCE AND RECESSIVENESS AFFECT HOW FREQUENCIES WILL CHANGE THRU TIME
T/F
FALSE
HARDY-WEINBURG EQUILIBRIUM IS A _____ HYPOTHESIS.
NULL
WHAT IS THE NULL HYPOTHESIS OF THE HARDY WEINBURG EQUILIBRIUM?
WHEN ALL ASSUMPTIONS ARE MET,POPULATIONS WILL BE IN EQUILIBRIUM
HARDY WEINBURG----SITUATIONS IN WHICH POPULATIONS ARE NOT AT EQUILIBRIUM INDICATE THAT.....
1 OR MORE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES ARE AT WORK
HARDY WEINBURG PRINCIPLE-----KNOWING GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES, WE CAN CALCULATE THE ______ ______
ALLELE FREQUENCIES
IN A FAMILY,______ _____ APPLY,IN A POPULATION,______ ______ PROPORTIONS APPLY
MENDELIAN RATIOS;HARDY WEINBURG
DEPARTURE FROM THE H-W PROPORTIONS INDICATES WHAT?
THAT 1 OR MORE OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS HAS BEEN VIOLATED
_______ IS THE ONLY AGENT THAT PRODUCES ADAPTIVE EVOLUTIONARY CHAGES
SELECTION
WHAT ARE THE 5 AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE?
MUTATION,GENE FLOW,NON-RANDOM MATING,GENETIC DRIFT AND SELECTION
______ FROM 1 ALLELE TO ANOTHER CAN CHANGE THE PROPORTIONS OF PARTICULAR ALLELS IN A POP
MUTATION
WHAT IS THE ULTIMATE SOURCE OF GENETIC VARIATION?
MUTATION
MUTATIONS DO NOT OCCUR MORE FREQUENTLY IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH THEY WOULD BE FAVORED BY NATURAL SELECTION
T/F
TRUE
______-----CHANGE IN BASE PAIR SEQUENCE
MUTATION
THERE ARE MANY CAUSES OF MUTATIONS...NAME 3
REPLICATION ERROR,MUTAGENS,TRANSPOSONS
_____ _____ IS THE MOVEMENT OF ALLELS FROM 1 POP TO ANOTHER VIA MOVEMENT OF INDIVIDUALS OR THEIR GAMETES
GENE FLOW
GENE FLOW CAN BE A POWERFUL AGENT BCUZ MEMBERS OF 2 DIFFERENT POPULATIONS MAY....
EXCHANGE GENETIC MATERIAL
_____ _____ CAN BE OBVIOUS OR NOT SO OBVIOUS
GENE FLOW
GENE FLOW MAY ALSO RESULT FROM THE MATING OF INDIVIDUALS BELONGING TO _______ POPULATION
ADJACENT
GENE FLOW WILL TEND TO BRING THE _____ ALLELE INTO POP
RARER
IF NATURAL SELCTION FAVORS DIFFERENT ALLELES IN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS, WAHT WILL GENE FLOW DO?
GIVE EXAMPLE
OPPOSE POPULATION DIFFERENTATION;
WATER SNAKES IN WESTERN BASIN OF LAKE ERIE
_______ _______----INDIVIDUALS WITH CERTAIN GENOTYPES SOMETIMES MATE WITH ONE ANOTHER MORE COMMONLY THEN WOULD BE EXPECTED ON A RANDOM BASIS
NON-RANDOM MATING
______ ______ IS WHEN "LIKE"(PHENOTYPICALLY) INDIVIDUALS MATE
ASSORTIVE MATING
ASSORTIVE MATING DOES NOT CAHNGE FREQ OF ALLELS BUT INCREASES FREQ OF _______ AND DECREASES FREQ OF _______
HOMOZYGOTES;HETEROZYGOTES
_______ ______ IS WHEN GENOTYPICALLY DIFFERENT INDIVIUALS MATE
DISSASSORTIVE MATING
AA*AA,AA*AA,Aa*Aa EXAMPLES OF WHAT KIND OF MATING?
ASSORTIVE MATING
AA*aa,Aa*aa ARE EXAMPLES OF WUT KIND OF MATING?
DISSASSORTIVE MATING
DISSASSORTIVE MATING INCREASES FREQ OF _____ AND DECREASE FREQ OF _____
HETEROZYGOTES,HOMOZYGOTES
NONRANDOM MATING CHANGES ________ FREQUENCIES BUT NOT ALLELE FREQUENCIES
PHEOTYPIC
_____ _____ IS DEFINED AS THE RANDOM(CHANCE)FLUCTUATION IN ALLELE FREQ
GENETIC DRIFT
THE EFFECT OF GENETIC DRIFT IS STRONGER IN LARGE OR SMALL POPULATIONS?
SMALL
GENETIC DRIFT RESULTS IN THE ____ OF ______ IN A ISOLATED POP
LOSS OF ALLELES
WHAT ARE THE 2 MOST COMMON WAYS IN WHICH GENETIC DRIFT CAN OCCUR?
BOTTLE NECK AND FOUNDER EFFECT
POPULATION GOES THRU DRASTIC BUT BRIEF REDUCTION IN SIZE FOLLOWED BY RECOVERY...BOTTLE NECK OR FOUNDER EFFECT?
BOTTLE NECK
SMALL # OF INDIVIDUALS FOUND NEW POP...FOUNDER EFFECT OR BOTTLE NECK?
FOUNDER EFFECT
______ POPULATIONS HAVE LOWER VARIABLITY THAN ______ POPULATIONS
ISLAND;MAINLAND
ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS DETERMINE WHICH INDIVIDUALS IN A POP PRODUCE THE MOST OFFSPRING...THIS DESCRIBES WUT?
NATURAL SELECTION
______ ______ DEFINED AS THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION OF GENOTYPES
NATURAL SELECTION
______ ______ IS THE ONLY MECANISM ABLE TO PRODUCE ADAPTIVE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE
NATURAL SELECTION
NATURAL SELECTION IS THE ______ AND EVOLUTION IS THE ______
PROCESS;OUTCOME
WHAT ARE THE 3 NEC AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS OF NATURAL SELECTION?
VARIATION,FITNESS DIFFERENCES,INHERITANCE
_______ IS THE DIFFERENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS IN SOME ATTRIBUTE OR TRAIT
VARIATION
______ ______ IS A CONSTANT RELATIONSHIP B/W THAT TRAIT AND MATING ABILITY,FERTILIZING ABILITY ETC...
FITNESS DIFFERENCES
________ IS THE CONSISTANT RELATIONSHIP FOR THAT TRAIT B/W PARENTS AND THEIR OFFSPRING
INHERITANCE
NATURAL SELECTION WORKS BY ______ INDIVIDUALS WITH SOME TRAITS OVER THOSE WITH ______ TRAITS
FAVORING;ALTERNATIVE
IF NO _______ EXISTS,NATURAL SELECTION CAN NOT OPERATE
VARIATION
_______ IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTES GENES TO FUTURE GENERATIONS
FITNESS
RELATIVE FITNESS OR ABSOLUTE FITNESS MORE INFORMATIVE?
RELATIVE
RELATIVE FITNESS DETERMINES WHICH ALLELES ....
INCREASE IN FREQ
THERE ARE MANY COMPONENTS OF FITNESS. NAME 3
SURVIVAL,FREQ OF MATING,AND # OF SURVIVIG OFFSPRING PER MATING
SELECTION FAVORS GENOTYPES WIT THE GREATES _______
FITNESS
THE MOST FIT PHENO TYPE IS THE ONE THAT...
PRODUCES THE GREATEST # OF OFFSPRING
SELECTION TO AVOID DETECTION BY VISUAL PREDATORS IS AN EXAMPLE OF...
NATURAL SELECTION
SELECTION FOR PESTICIDE RESISTANCE,SELECTON FOR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE,SELECTION FOR RESISTANCE TO ANTIVIRAL DRUGS IN HIV AND SELECTION TO MATCH CLIMATE ARE ALL EXAMPLES OF...
NATURAL SELECTION
EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES _____.
SELECTION MAY FAVOR AN ALLELE THAT IS LOST DUE TO CAHNCE EFFECTS IN SMALL POPULATIONS
INTERACT
OFTEN ______ ARE DIFFICULT TO DETECT
INTERACTIONS
MANY INTERACTIONS ARE _______
TRANSITORY
SOME INTERACTIONS MAY ACT IN _______ WAYS ON A GENOTYPE
OPPOSITE
FITNESS OF A PHENOTYPE DEPENDS ON ITS FREQ WITHIN A POP...DESCRIBES WUT?
DEPENDENT SELECTION
DEPENDENT SELECTION CAN BE DRIVEN BY _____ ______ IN VISUAL PREDATORS
SEARH IMAGES
_______ SELECTION IS WHEN DIFFERENT ALLELES ARE FAVORED IN DIFFERENT SEASONS
OSCILLATING
IN ______ SELECTION,SELECTION FAVORS ONE PHENOTYPE AT ONE TIME AND ANOTHER AT ANOTHER TIME
OSCILLATING
_______ _____ LEAD TO THE OSCILLATING IN SELECTION
ENVIROMENTAL CHANGES
______ ______ FAVORS INDIVIDUALS WITH BOTH ALLELES
HETEROZYGOUS ADVANTAGE
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IS AN EXAMPLE OF...
HETEROZYGOUS ADVANTAGE
FINCHES EITH ______ SIZE BILLS ARE LESS AFFECTIVE WITH EITHER SIZE OF SEED AND ARE LESS FIT
INTERMEDIATE
IN FINCHES,SELECTION IS AGAINST WUT SIZE OF BILL?
INTERMEDIATE
________ SELECTION IS THE SELECTION FOR NEGATIVE PHOTOTROPISM IN DROSOPHILIA
(HOW MANY MOVED AWAY FROM LIGHT)
DIRECTIONAL
HUMAN INFANT MORALITY AS A FUNCTION OF BIRTHWEIGHT
MORTALITY IS LOWEST CLOSE TO THE TYPICAL BIRTHWEIGHT ARE EXAMPLES OF WHAT KIND OF SELECTION?
STABILIZING SELECTION
IN STABILIZING SELECTION SELECTION FAVORED ________
INTERMEDIATE
THE CONSTRAINTS ON NATURAL SELECTION SHOW THAT NOT ALL ATTRIBUTE OF AN ORGANISM ARE ______ ADAPTIONS.SOME MAY EVEN BE ______
PERFECT;MALADAPTIVE
WHAT ARE THE 2 KINDS OF NATURAL SELECTION CONSTRAINTS?
HISTORICAL AND FORMAL
YOU CANT GET THERE FROM HERE IS ANOTHER...
NATURAL SELECTION CONSTRAINT
TIME AND/OR VARIATION CONSTRAINT,PLEIOTROPY CONSTRAINTS AND GENE INTERACTION ARE 3 MORE....
NATURAL SELECTION CONSTRAINTS
EPISTASIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF WHICH NATURAL SELECTION CONSTRAINT?
GENE INTERACTION
_____ MODIFIES SELECTIVE ADVANTAGE OF ALLELES
EPISTASIS
A POSSIBLE EXAMPLE OF TIME AND/OR VARIATION CONTRAINT OF NATURAL SELECTION IS...
HEART DISEASE IN OUR SOCIETY