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17 Cards in this Set

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Structure/Function example
desert fox vs. artic fox -> thermoregulation. a desert fox has thin hear and big ears to give off more heat. the artic fox has smaller ears and more hair to keep in the heat.
Structure/Function example
hemoglobin -> the structure of hemoglobin. 4 protein chains with heme group. each heme group has an iron. the iron attached to oxygen. once on owygen binds, whole molecule more able to accept oxygen. funtion -> oxygen transport
Structure/Function example
fish gills -> stucture water flows over deoxy blood. water flows into gills and flows opp way over deoxy blood. the deoxy blood can pick up oxygen. function->respiratory structure.
evolution example
hemogloin -> very old molecule. original function was not oxygen carrying because some organisms have hemoglobin that didn't need them. as with sickle-cell (hemoglobin S) we see that any other hemoglobin wouldn't serve the correct function.
evolution example
endosymbiosis -> mitochondria and chloroplasts were once prokaryotic organisms that were engulfed by eukaryotic organisms. mitochondria and choloroplasts have a double membrane and circular DNA found in bacteria and other prokaryotes.
evolution example
metamorphisis of larval and pupal stages. larval stages mathced embroys and pupal stages matched nymphs. TRANSITION FROM HEMIMETABOLOUS TO HOLOMETABOLOUS
homeostasis example
control of calcium in the blood-> thyroid gland released calcitonin which causes the bone to uptake calcium which lowers blood calcium levels. this may be caused when you eat a calcium supplement. when blood calcium levels are too high, the parathyroid gland relases parathyroid hormone which causes bone to release calcium, raising calcium levels in the blood. this may be cause by a low calcium diet.
homeostasis example
control of blood sugar levels. in response to an increased [glucose] in blood, the pancreas will release insulin that causes the liver to uptake glucose from the blood. in response to a low [glusoce] in the blood, the pancrease realeases glucagon which causes the liver to breakdown glycogen to increase blood sugar levels.
emergent properties example
photosynthesis
emergent properites example
the nervous system -> all the parts of the nervous system are useless without the system as a whole.
emergen properties example
muscle function -> each part of a muscle, from the muscle fibers to the myofilaments, work together to produce muscle contraction.
scientific inquiry example
otto lewis -> sparks theory vs. soup theory. others had concluded that action potentials were the results of sparks at the synaptic terminal. Lewis beleived in the soup theory that action potentials caused chemical releases.
scientific inquiry example
Barbara Block -> brain heaters. modified muscle that keep brain warm so aqautic predators can function at low temperatures. have many mitochondria that produce heat as well as calcium pumpps present in the tissues.
scientific inquiry example
Hodgkin, Huxley, and Katz -> ionic hypothesis. the ionic basis of the action potential and synaptic transmission. explained the rising and falling phases of an action potential.
interaction with the environment example
photosynthesis -> plants use CO2 from the environment to make O2 to return to the environment.
interaction with the environment example
cellular respiration -> use O2 from the environment to make energy.
Unity and Diversity
differences and similarities amont organisms
1. hemimetabolous vs. holometabolous insects
2. desert fox vs. artic fox
3. different types of muscle in the same body (cardiac/skeletal)
4.excretory systems (none in auatic vertebrate/malphigian tubules of insects/ nephridial system of worms/kidneys of humans -- all serve same purposes:filtration, reabsorption, secretion)