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19 Cards in this Set

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electron suttle
NADH
Miller and Uray
experiment
First Energy Crisis
first organisms got their energy from preformed organic molecules (chemoheterotrophs).
they lived on free ATP. First Energy Crisis : NO MORE ATP
Solution to Energy Crisis 1
Glycolysis - breaking down glucose to make ATP
Glycolysis
Input:
2 NAD
2 ATP
glucose
Output:
2 NADH
4 ATP
2 pyruvate
Fermentation
regenerate NAD+ to keep glycolysis going. alcohol and lactic acid fermentation.
Mechanisms for Hydrogen Ion Surplus:
1) Proton Pump - require ATP
2)Electron Transport Chain - use e- through electron transport chain and use energy to transport H+ out
3) Chemiosmosis - create H+ gradient to drive H+ back to produce ATP
Second Energy Crisis:
Ran out of glucose - organisms that could make their own sugars had an advantage. AUTOTROPHS
Oxygen Revolution
Plants generated enough oxygen to make the atmosphere O2 rich. only some organisms surviced. led to the rise of heterotrophs.
Heterotrophs:
Oxidatvie Metabolism: Krebs Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation - require oxygen and gets rid of the toxic problem of too much oxygen created by plants
Krebs Cycle:
input:
acetyl CoA
output:
6 NADH
30 ATP
6 FADH2
junction between glycolysis and Krebs Cycle:
the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
how many cycles of the Krebs Cycle?
1 time for each pyruvate
2 times for each glucose
What happens to Kreb's Cycle products?
fed through the electron transport chain where oxygen is the final electron acceptor. makes water
electron transport chain
at each point in the electron transport chain, H+ are pumped into intermembrane space creating a proton gradient which pushes the H+ back making lots of ATP (30) --total 34 ATP for electron transport (other 4 from FADH2)
how do you switch from glycolysis to oxidatvie phosphorylation?
pyruvate responds to oxygen availability
Is glucose the only fuel you can use for metabolism?
No - can use carbs, fat, protein.
Respiratory Quotient
CO2 formed / O2 used --> can use the different components becuase fats/carbs/proteins enter the cycle at different places. Carbs are preferred.
carbs - 100
fat -.71
protein (urea) -.81
protein (uric acid) - .74
Controlling Cellular respiration....
phosphofructokinase - responds to negative feedback. Inhibited by ATP ( if you have enough, cycle slows down). Inhibited by citrate from the Krebs cycle. AMP(from the breakdown of ATP) will stimulate phosphofructokinase