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18 Cards in this Set

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Current data suggests that 2 in 3 Americans is either ___ or ___.
fat, obese
The BMI represents ___ ___ ___.
body mass index
The BMI evaluates your _____ in relation to your ______.
height, weight
If your BMI is greater than 30 you would be considered _____.
obese
If your BMI is between ____ & ____ you would be considered overweight.
25, 29
A calorie is the amount of released heat to raise 1 kg of water by _____.
1 degree Celsius
If you eat an extra 40-50 calories a day, you would be estimated to gain _____ pound every year.
1
The equation for photosynthesis begins with carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water, to form glucose, _____, and water.
oxygen
In plants, the green pigment that traps solar energy is known as _____
chlorophyll
The source of hydrogen needed for photosynthesis comes from _____.
water
Obesity can result in a number of diseases such as heart disease, _____, high cholesterol, osteoarthritis _____ and _____.
stroke, diabetes, cancer
The splitting of uranium atoms, as used in the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, is referred to as nuclear _____.
fission
The process of fusing hydrogen atoms to form helium, which releses huge amounts of energy, is known as _____
nuclear fusion
Photosynthesis is one of the most important of biological processes on Earth. Explain the process of photosynthesis in words, describing the components which plants take in nd which are produced.
Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water from the soil and use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is then used to join with carbon dioxide in the air to form carbohydrates, with byproducts of water and oxygen.
Describe the strategies that plants have evolved for collecting light and water.
Light: some plants compete for sunlight by growing into towering trees. Smaller plants beneath the canopy either fail to thrive or simple die. In this way plants compete for light.

Water uptake: Roots have specialized root hairs to ensure that every drop of water is taken up. Through a set of tubing known as xylem, water is brought to every leaf through the process of transpiration.
We measure the energy uptake in humans in terms of calories. Describe how a calorie is measured (include the name of the device used), how a small excess of calories per day can lead to obesity over a lifetime, the statistics of obesity as a cause of death in 2000, and 3 major health consequences of obesity.
Calorie is measured using a Calorimeter as is defined as the amount of heat energy that raises one kg of water by 1C.

As little as 40-50 extra calories a day can cause you to gain about 1 pound each year. Over the course of a lifetime, an individual may gain many pounds to the point to obesity.

In the year 2000, obesity accounted for approximately 400,000 deaths in the US, second only to smoking-related death.

Any of the following 3: heart disease, stroke, adult onset diabetes, high cholesterol, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer.
How is the energy relesed from the sun produces and how long will this reaction continue for?
Within the sun, at its core, nuclear fusion is occurring. At a temperature of 28 million degrees, hydrogen atoms are combined to form helium, releasing huge amounts of energy which reach the earth in the form of light and heat. This reaction in the sun has been occurring for 5 billion years and will continue to occur for another 5 billion years.
Explain how energy originates in the sun and how that energy, once it reaches Earth, is transferred through the food chain.
Withing the sun's core, hydrogen atoms are combined to form helium, a process known as nuclear fusion. This process results in the production of huge amounts of energy with radiates from the sun in the form of light. When this light reaches the Earth, plants use it to carry out photosynthesis, the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. Animals and insects can then feed on the plants and break down those carbohydrates to provide energy for their own biological processes. Other predators, such as birds and mammals then feed on these intermediary organisms, and utilized the carbohydrates in them as energy for themselves. The energy all organisms obtain ultimately results from the light released from nuclear fusion in the sun.