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447 Cards in this Set

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Hominid Characteristics
Colloquial term for members of the family Hominidae- which includes all pipedal hominoids back to the divergence from African great apes Brain Case Shape: Pentagonal Shape Facial Skeleton: Teeth: Dental Formula 2:1:2:3 Stature: Fore and Hind Limb Lengths: Hand and Foot Anatomy: Hip- Knee and Ankle Anatomy: Tool Use:
Stereoscopic Vision
The ability to percieve objects in
Binocular Vision
Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward-facing eyes.
K-Selected
Pertain to an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring
r-Selection
Pertaining to an adaptive stategy that emphasizes relitively lage numbers of offspring and reduced parental care
Lovejoy's Hypothesis
full bipedalism developed in his response to the male's need to provision female consurt since males hunted some distnces from their living area
Paleoanthropology
the branch of anthropology concerned with fossil hominids.
Independent Assortment
Genes do not affect each other.
Crossing Over
Ends exchanged during Meiosis- adds variety
Regional Races
Unknown/could not find
Bipedalism
Walking on two feet.
Classification
Ordering of organisms into categories- to show evolutionary relationship
Binomial
Invented by Karl Linne- he basically added class and order- which is the foundation for taxonomy
Amphibians
a cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that comprises the frogs- toads- newts- and salamanders.
Darwin’s Finches
Part of his evidence- shows the beak variation in the same species
Primate Social Behavior
Social behavior is directed towards society- or taking place between- members of the same species. Examples of primate behavior would be grooming.
Primate Characteristics
▪ retention of the collar bone in the pectoral girdle
▪ a trend towards a reduced snout and flattened face
attributed to a reliance on vision at the expense of olfaction (most notably in haplorrhines
▪ a complex visual system with stereoscopic vision
high visual acuity and color vision
▪ a large brain in comparison to body size
especially in simians
Ethology
The science of animal behavior and the study of human behavior and social organization from a biological perspective
Glaciations
Different levels of ice- you can tell the different ages of the glacier (like soil- d
Hypothesis
An educated guess
Foraging
Act of searching for food
Potassium/Argon Dating
A decay of radioactive potassium into argon- and it is found in volcanic rock. The rock melts and then cools down and stops gases for
Gregor Mendel
Scientist who bred different types of peas together. Found the idea of recessive versus dominant traits
Hereditary
determined by genetic factors and therefore able to be passed on from parents to their offspring or descendants
Major Cultural Traditions
Mysterian
Homo Sapiens
That’s us!
Homo Erectus
Used the Oldewan.
Homo Ergaster
From Africa- shorter sagittal crest.
Homo Antecessorr
unkn
Homo Heidlebergensis
Bigger brain- case shape is inflated- sagittal keel- brow
Homo Neanderthalensis
Large brain size- large forehead- small teeth size-later ones have pertuding chins- hyoid is different shape then modern- started the acheleaon tool
Laetoli
Footprints found that was made by australopithecus afarensis
Upper Paleolithic
A cultural period usually associated with modern humans- but also found with some Neanderthals- and distinguished by technological innovation in various stone tool industries. Best known from western Europe- similar industries are also known from central and eastern Europe and Africa
Partial Replacement Model
Follows previous theory (Complete Replacement Model) but believers interbreeding happened between moderns and premoderns during migration
Olduvai Gorge
a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches through eastern Africa
Ardipithecus ramidus
early hominid dating back 4.4 MYA
Kenyanthropus playtops
3.5-3.2 MYA hominid species discovered by Mary Leakey- found in Kenya.
Australopithecus amamensis
4 MYA hominid species
Australopithecus afarensis
3.9-2.9 MYA
Australopithecus africanus
early hominid 2-3 MYA
Australopithecus aethiopicus
black skull
Australopithecus robustus
2-1.2 MYA
Australopithecus boisei
early hominid from 2.6-2.1 MYA
Homo rudolfensis
1.9 MYA
Homo habilis
2.3-1.4 MYA
Bergman’s rule
body size tends to be greater in pop that live in colder environments
Allen’s rule
colder climates tend to have shorter appendages and inverse in warm climates
Acclimatization
physiological responses to changes in environment
Evolution
Change in frequency of alleles from one generation to the next
Principles of segregation
genes occur in pairs b/c chromosomes occur in pairs. During gamete formation- the members of each pair of separate alles separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. Full amount restored during fertilization
Natural Selection
the process by which biological traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers
Fixity of species
belief that life forms couldn’t and wouldn’t change
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1832) economic analysis of population and food supply
Allele
alternate forms of DNA- occur at the same locus but may reslut in different expression
Gene
sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein
Amino acids
small molecules- components of protein
DNA
double stranded molecule that contains genetic code
mRNA
form of RNA that’s assembled on a sequence of DNA bases
tRNA
type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis
Ribosomes
structures composed of rRNA and protein. Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm. essential to manufacture proteins
Hemple’s Paradigm
the more plausible answers there are the less evidence there is for one specific answer
Operationalization
assessing need: how much an experiment will cost- what instruments are needed- ect
Microevolution
change of gene frequencies within existing species
Macroevolution
Darwinian evolution changes; genetic material lost replaced by new material creates new species
Scientific Method
approach to research where problem is identified hypothesis stated then tested by collecting and analyzing data
Physical Anthropology
study of human biology within framework of evolution and emphasis on interaction between biology and culture
Anthropology
field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology
4 types of anthropology
1. cultural anthro 2. archaeology 3. linguistics 4. physical anthro
Holistic approach
examines each aspect and sees how it affects the hole.
Archaeology
cultural anthropo in past- uses secondary evidence; artifacts
Cultural Anthropology
examines family structures- trade- or other organizations and influences
Flake Tool Industry
making flakes struck off unmodified cores to create tools. Began during the lower paleoluthic period in Africa. Believe Homo Hablis was maker of the tools
Oldowan tool industry
found in olduvai Gorge on Tanzania in Africa
Percussion Flaking
Method of forming a tool flint by striking flakes from a stone corre with another stone or a peice of bone or wood
Core
a lump of stone (like flint) from which prehistoric humans struck flakes in order to make tools
Flake tools
a type of tool created by striking a flake from a prepared stone core
Hammerstone
hard cobble used to strike off flakes from another lump of tool stone (core) It is a type of flake tool- it is a core
Core tools
Core of stone may be discarded after flaking or shaped further into a core tool
Debitage
all waste material produced during tool-making (specifically when chipped stone tools are involved)
Pressure flaking
method of trimming the edge of a stone tool by removing small lithic flakes by pressuring on the stone with a sharp instrument rather than striking it with a percussor
Flaker
type of tool used to create prehistoric tools in early stone working
Baton
using a pointed implement of wood
Groundstone
a category of stone tool formed by the grinding of a course-grained tool stone
Oldowan Tool Traditions
-stone tools used by hominins in Lower Paleolithic
Acheulean Tool Traditions
Lower paleolithic
Mousetrian Tool Traditions
predominantly flint tools
Adaptive Radiation
evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage.
Sagittal Kneel
Thickening of bone on the midline of the frontal or parietals where they meet along the sagittal suture
Half Life
The time period in which one half the amount of a radioactive isotope is converted chemically.
Radiocarbon Dating
a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon 14 to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58-000 to 62-000 years
Biostratigraphy
A relative dating technique based on regular changes seen in evolving groups of animals as well as presence or absence of particular species
Metazoa
A kingdom that animals are in. Animals are a major group of multicellular animals that make up the major portion of the animal kingdom; cells are organized in layers or groups as specialized tissues or organ systems.
Chordata
The Phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
Vertebrates
Animals with segmented bony spinal columns
Homologies
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
Analogies
Similarities between organismns based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent
Cladogram
a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms
Biological Species Concept
A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductilvely isolated from other such groups
Genus
A group of closely related species
Species
ne of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. It is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Heterodont
refers to animals which possess more than a single tooth morphology.
Endothermic
able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
ICZN
International Code of Zoolofical Nomenclature
Prosimians
Members of a suborder of Primates
(Lemurs- Lorises- and tarsiers)
Anthropoids
Monkeys (New and Old World)
Specialized [Function]
unknown/could not find
Primatologists
Scientists who study the evolution- anatomy- and behavior of nonhuman primates
Morphology
The form (shape/size) of anatomical structures; can also refer to the entire organism
Arboreal
animals living in trees
Adaptive Niche
An organism's entire way of life; where it lives- how it eats- how it avoids predators- ect.
Intelligence
Mental Capacity; ability to learn- reason or comprehend and interpret information- facts- relationships- and meanings- ability to solve problems
Arboreal Hypothesis
points out that animals such as squirrels are also arboreal
Midline
the median line or median plane of the body or some part of the body of an animal.
Cusps
a point or pointed edge; a point
Quadrupedal
Using all four libs ti support the body during locomotion; the basic mammilian (and primate) form of locomotion
Macaques
constitute a genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Brachiation
a form of locomotion used by some primates; the animal suspends itself from a branch or other hand-hold and moves alternatevly swinging from one forelimb to the other; also called arm swinging
Rhinarium
The moisr hairless pad at the end of the nose- enhances ability to smell (NW)
Callitrichidae
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Cebidae
Cebidae
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Callitrichidae
Ischial Callosities
Patches of tough hard skin on the butt of Old WOld Monkeys and chimps
Cercopithecidae
All Old World Monkeys are placed in one taxonomic family
Ceropithecines
The subfamily of Old World Monkeys that include baboons
Colobines
Common name for memvers of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkets and Asian langurs
Sexual Dimorphism
Differences in Physical Characteristics between males and females of the same species.
Estrus
comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. These cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases or pregnancies. Typically continue until death.
Hominoidea
The formal designation for the superfamily of anthropoids that incudes apes and humans
Hylobatidae
The superfamily Hominoideaa includes the so-called lesser apes of this family.
Pongidae
they are referred to as the "great apes". This family contains 4 species:
Gorillas
Chimps
Orangutans
Bonobos
Frugivorous
Having a diet composed primarily of fruit
Natal Group
The group in which animals are born and raised.
Limbs and Locomotion
-A tendency toward an erect posture
Erect Posture
It is a derieved trait that all primares show to some degree. It's variously associated with sitting
Flexibility
This is an ancestral trait that primates have retained some bonans and certain abilitys that have been lost in more specialized animals. They are not restricted to one form of movement.
Prehensility
Grasping
Pentadactyly
the condition of having five digits (fingers or toes) on a limb
Nails
a horn-like envelop covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes
Opposable Thumb
Most primares are capable of moving the thumb so that it opposes or comes in contact with the second digit
Tactile Pads
enriched with the sensory neerve fibers at the ends of digits. Enhances the sense of touch
Diet and Teeth
-Lack of Diertart Specialization
Omnivorous
Having a diet consisting of many food types
Generalized Dentition
The teeth aren't specialized for processing only one type of food
Dental Formula
number and types of teeth on each half of the jaw.
Tool Making
Unknown/Could not find
Senses and Brain
Primates rely heavily on vision and less on olfaction
Diurnal
Active during the day
Nocturnal
Active during the night
Color Vision
Characteristic of all diurnal primates
Bilaterality of Vision
unknown/cannot find
Hemispheres
Two halves of the cerebrum that are connected by a dense mass of fibers.
3-D Vision
The capacity for stereoscopic vision depends on each hemishpere of the brain recieving visual information from both eyes and from overlapping visual fields
Olfaction
The sense of smell
Complexity
General trend among placental mammals
Matuaration
Learning
Learned Behavior
correlated with delayed maturation and subsequently longer periods of infant and child dependency on at least one parent
Social
Except for some nocturnal species
Threat Yawns
Unknown/Could not find
Dominance
Unknown/Could not find
Matt Cartmill
physical anthropologist & anatomist at Boston University
Visual Predation Hypothesis
argues that ancestral primates were insectivorous predators resembling tarsiers
Lemur
-large-eyed arboreal prosimian having foxy faces and long furry tail
Tarsier
Three species restricted to island areas in SE Asia. They live in a wide range of habitats. They are nocturnal insectivores
New World Monkeys
found in a wide range of arboreal enviroments throughout most forested area in Southern Mexico and Central and South America.
Old World Monkies
they are the most widely distributed of all living primates
Lesser Apes
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae (pronounced /ˌhaɪlɵˈbeɪtɨdiː/). The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44)
Diane Fossey
an American zoologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups over a period of 18 years.
Behavior
Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli. The response of an individual
Free Ranging
Pertaining to non-captive animals living in their natural habitat.
Social Structure
The composition- size- and sex ratio of a group of animals
Behavior Ecology
The study of the evolution of behavior- emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection
Philopatric
Remaining in one's natal group or home range as an adult
Strategies
Behaviors and behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive fitness
Sympatric
Living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats partly or largerly overlap
Home Range
Total area exploited by an animal or social group
Conspecifics
Members of the same species
Dominance Hierarchies
Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
Communication
Any act that conveys information in the form of a message to another individual.
Autonomic
Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control.
Displays
Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states.
Affiliative
Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals. These include grooming
Grooming
Picking through gur to remove dirt- parasites- ect. common- reinforces social bond
Reproductive Strategies
The complex of behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success. The behaviors need not be deliberate
Sexual Selection
A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex withing a species. It is th result of competition from mates
Polyandry
A mating sytem wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male
Alloparenting
A common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parent(s) hold- carry and interact with infants
Baboon Model
-Troops (10 - 200 animals)
Geological Time Scale
The organization of earth history into eras
Era System
the break up of the Geological time scale in large portions called Eras
Continental Drift
The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface.
Pangea
all continents linked together as one and it was called this
Gondwanaland
the continients that Laurasia doesn't cover
Laursasia
the northernmost of the two super continents after Pangaea broke up
Gradualism Equalibrium
change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages
Punctuated Equilibrium
The concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change
Mosiac Evolution
A pattern of evolution in which the rates of evolution in one functional system vary from those in other systems.
Generalized Traits
a trait that is adaptive for many functions
example: a generalized mammilian limb has 5 fairly flexible digits that is adaptive for many different things (grasping)
Paleontology
the branch of science concerned with fossil animals and plants.
Archeology
the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
Paleoecology
the ecology of fossil animals and plants.
Artifact
objects or materials made or modified for use by hominids- earliest –stone- bone
Context
The enviromental setting where an archeological trace is found.
Association
"ultimate classification level" of ecological systems
Dating Techniques
placing sites and fossils into a time frame.
Relative Dating
tells that something is older or younger than something else
Absolute Dating
AKA Chronometic Dating
Stratigraphy
Study of the sequential layering of deposits
Fluorine Dating
use of fluorine to determine the duration of time an object found in the soil has been there. It is a relative dating technique
Fission Track Dating
A method of dating an object that counts the number of tracks made by the breakdown of radiocarbon elements. The older an object is the more tracks it leaves. This method is used mostly on rocks
Zeroing
when rocks are heated to the melting point
Plio-Pleistocene
Pertaining to the Pliocene and the first half of the Plieostocene
Sectorial
Adapted for cutting or shearing; among primates
Apidium
that of at least three extinct primates living in the early Oligocene
Aegyptopithecus zuxus
means “linking Egyptian ape”. It was discovered by E. Simons in 1965. There is controversy over whether or not Aegyptopithecus should be a genus on its own or whether it should be moved into the genus Propliopithecus
Proconsul africanus
the first species of the Miocene-era fossil genus of primate to be discovered and was named by Arthur Hopwood
Dryopithecus
a genus of apes that is known from Eastern Africa into Eurasia the late Miocene period.
Sivipithecus
a genus of extinct primates. Fossil remains of animals now assigned to this genus
Bipedal Adaption
several hypothesis that attempted to explain why bipedal locomotion fisrt evolved in hominids.
Large-Bodied Hominoids
unkn
Carbon Reservoir
effective range of the time it can be used
Bicuspid
premolar teeth with 2 cusps. Traditional teeth located between canine and molar teeth
Sagittal Crest
presence indicated large jaw muscls for intense chewing. Ridge of bone between canine and molar teeth
Nuchal Crest
the thick- transverse crest on the occipital bone
Brain Endocast
internal cast of a hollow object
Robust Australopithecines
Paranthropus - bipedal hominids that probably desceneded from gracile australopithicines
Gracile Australopithecines
hominids belonging to austropithecus genus. hominids. Now extinct
osteodontokeratic
theoretical construct of anthropologist Raymond Dart. Proposed that certain jagged animal bones found at the Makeepansgat site represent where Australopithecines murdered and cannabalized other Australopithecines
Phylogeny
study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (family tree concept)
Stable Carbon Isotopes
12C and 13C are stable carbon isotopes. Naturally occuring. Occur in a natural proportion of 99:1
Limitations
wathering leading to the loss of argon gas
Specialized Traits
a trait that is limited to a narrow set of functions
Linguistics
Engages with culture to learn language examine pieces of sound syntax grammar and ability to communicate
Primate studies
study of non-human primates biology and behavior
Human variation
differences in the anatomical features between humans
Human paleontology
study of fossil humans
Biocultural approach
examines interaction of biology genetic makeup and culture
Species concept
depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile inbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
Perspective
way you view things
E Method
empirical - characterized by experimentation
Paradigm
example - pattern - model
Subject
thing being tested
Problem
the thing being tested - some unanswered natural phenomenon
Testing
repetition or expansion of original work
Theory
broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles
Stages of development in the life cycle
Zygote > Embryo > Fetus > Child
Zygote
fertilized cell
Embryo
differentiate and build- systems made- heart starts building- systems in place
Fetus
preborn child
Child
born - continues to grow and develop
Juvenile
continues to develop
Cell structure
Membrane *Cytoplasm *Lysosome *Ribosome
Membrane
part surrounding cell
Cytoplasm
liquid throughout largely water
Lysosome
breaks down waste of the cell
Mitochondria
structures contained within cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Nucleus
structure that contains chromosomes (DNA)
Codon
three nucleotides put together which creates the code for amino acids
Nucleotide
Basic units of DNA molecule
Replication
to duplicate the DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself
Polypeptide chain
sequence of amino acids that act alone or in cobo with others as functional protein
Protein Synthesis
production of proteins
Homologous
pairs of chromosome pairs of the same length
Autosomes
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of the baby (X or Y)
Karyotype
chromosomal complement of an individual
Interphase
the phase where the cell spends most of its time
Prophase
chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome in which the chromatin becomes visible
Metaphase
condensed & highly coiled chromosomes- carrying genetic code- align in the middle of the cell before being separated into two daughter cells
Anaphase
when the cell separates
Telophase
nucleus forms in both cells and both cells fully separate
Chromosome
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein- found only in the nuclei
Locus
codes position on a chromosome where given gene occurs
Mitosis
simple cell division
Meiosis
cell division in specialized cells resulting in four daughter cells each with half the chromosomes
Gametogenesis
production of gametes
Spermatogenesis
process to form sperm
Oogenesis
process of forming ovum
Gamete
sex cell
Somatic cell
cells that form the body of an organism
Karl Linne
used Ray’s genus and species to establish binomial nomenclature
Charles Darwin
sailed on Beagle 1831-35- wrote Origin of Species (1859) argument elegant- developed natural selection
Alfred Wallace
(1823-1913) catalyst
Charles Lyell
(1797-1834) founder of modern geology
Comte de buffon Natural History
(1749) King’s gardener believed that when a group oforganisms migrated to new areas
Jean Baptiste Lamarke
(1744-1829) inheritance of acquired characteristics (use
Georges Cuvier
(1769-1832) catastrophism- earth’s geological landscape product of violent cataclysmic events
Transmutation
change from one species to another
Peppered moth experiment
shows natural selection at work
Reproductive success
the passing of genes
Selective pressure
any pressure that reduces reproductive success in a proportion of a population
Fitness
the ability to both survive and reproduce
Darwin’s Evidence
Finches- beak variation Domestic animal breeding- dogs
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”
is a hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult- animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors
Blending
characteristics being a medium between the parents
Hybrids
offspring of individuals that differ with regard to certain traits
Purebreds
homozygous
Positive assortative mating
choosing mates that are similar
Negative assortative mating
choosing mates that are different
Genotypes
genetic makeup of an individual or alleles at a particular locus
Phenotype
observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism
Mendelian traits
characteristics influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus
Phenotypic ratio
proportion of one phenotype to other phenotypes in that group of organisms (3 tall plants for every short on)
Sickle cell anemia
genetic disorder- malformed red blood cells
PTC testing
ability to taste PTC may be affected by more than one allele
Antigens
large molecules found on the surface of cells- several different loci govern various antigens on red and white blood cells (foreign antigens provoke an immune response
Codominance
the expression of two alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation neither is recessive or dominant
Pedigree chart
diagram showing family relationships- used to trace hereditary patterns of particular genetic traits
Autosomal Dominant traits
traits that are dominant and inherited through Autosomes
Autosomal recessive traits
traits that are recessive and inherited through Autosomes
Sex linked traits
controlled by genes located on the X and Y chromosomes
G-6-PD
lack of enzyme in blood cells; produces severe- sometimes fatal anemia in prescence of certain foods or drugs
Hemophilia
A- clotting factor is missing; B- caused by defective clotting factor. Produce abnormal internal and external bleeding; severe pain
Hemizygus
the X- single gene
Polygenic
traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci (stature- skin/hair/eye color)
Polygenic inheritance
traits that are influenced by genes on 2 or more loci
Pleiotropy
situation that occurs when action of a single gene affects several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects
Mitochondrial inheritance
inherited from mother- convert energy
Variation (genetic)
inherited differences among individuals
Allele frequency
in pop. Percentage of all alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele
Population
a community of individuals where a mate is usually found
Mutation
when a gene is altered and allele changes to another
Gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
Random genetic Drift
allele frequency changes
Founder effect
genetic drift from small group to larger successive group
Bottlenecking
small group left to colonize
Gene pool
all available genes to a certain population
Recombination
can change allele composition and affect how some genes act
Malaria-parasitic disease
involves high fevers
Plasmodium falciprium
causes malaria by infecting cell
Monogenist
The theory that all humans are descended from a single pair of ancestor
Polygenist
One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair
Blumenbach
German anatomist who classified humans into five categories
Retzius
Swedish anatomist who developed Swedish anatomist
Dolichocephalic
long narrow heads
Brachycephalic
broad heads
Biological determinism
concept that phenomena including behavior were biologically governed
Eugenics
philosophy of race improvement
Polytypic
referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of more than one trait
Racism
a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement
Intelligence
capacity for learning
Polymorphism
loci with more than one allele
Cline
gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographical region to another
Population geneticists
study of the frequencies of alleles- genotypes and phenotypes in pop from microevolutionary perspective
Genetic variation
variation in alleles of genes occurring both within and among populations
Breeding isolates
populations that are clearly isolated geographically and/or cocially from other breeding groups
Endogamy
breeding within group
Exogamy
breeding outside of group
Hardy Weinberg Formula
–mathematical relationship expressing- under ideal conditions- the predicted distribution of alleles in populations
Nonrandom mating
patterns of mating in pop in which individual chooses mate preferentially
Inbreeding
type of nonrandom mating where relatives mate more often than predicted under random mating conditions
Slash-and-burn agriculture
created stagnant water increased mosquito pop and malaria infections
Ex of balanced polymorphism
maintenance- of two ro more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
Lactose intolerance
inability to digest fresh milk products
Adaptation
evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat
Stress
in physiological context- any factore that distrupts homeostasis
Homeostasis
condition of balance or stability within a biological system- maintained by interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes (internal and external)
Plasticity
describes the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
Solar radiation
affects skin color
Neural tube
anatomical structure that turns into brain/spinal cord
Spina Bifida
condition where arch of one or more vertebrae refuse to fuse and form protective barrier around spinal cord
Foliate (A B Vitamin)
important to feal development and sperm and RBC formation
Skin cancer
the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells
UV radiation
electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than a visible light- can cause sunburn and skin cancer
Vitamin D
essential for mineralization and normal growth of bones- deficiency causes rickets
Reproductive hormone
melatonin- helps determine when a woman starts to menstruate- the frequency and duration of menstrual cycles- and when a woman stops menstruating (menopause).
Vasodilatation
capillaries near skins surface widen- causing more heat to radiate
Vasoconstriction
narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to skin- causing more heat retention
Hypoxia
caused by reduced barometric pressure- oxygen more spread out
Infectious diseases
transmitted person to person or through vector
Vectors
agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another
Endemic
Where disease naturally is found
Zoonotic
disease transmitted to humans through contact with animals
Antibodies
proteins produced by some types of immune cells
Pathogens
substances or microorganisms that cause disease (bacteria- fungi- viruses)
HIV/AIDS
pandemic- caused by contact with blood- semen- vaginal fluid- preseminal fluid- and breast milk
SARS
severe acute respiratory syndrome- zoonotic transmisiion
Racial purity ideology
eugenics- one race superior
Valley fever
in CA- arid environment- infects mammals- birds- amphibians- and fish
Kuru
transmitted through ritual cannibalism
Epidemic
passed around in broader contexts
Measles
contagious (easily spread) illness caused by a virus
Smallpox
serious and contagious disease that causes a rash on the skin
Plague
a severe and potentially deadly bacterial infection
Pandemic
global in nature
Flu
migrates very quickly
Incidence rate
rate of how many people actually get disease
Prevalence rate
rate expected to get disease based on past years
Demographic shift
a change in demographic statistics
Tapeworm
infection of the digestive tract by a parasite- from eating undercooked food
Nutrition
the provision- to cells and organisms- of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life
Undernutrition
lack of calories results in death
Malnutrition
lack of protein- vitamin- minerals
Kwashiorkor
lack of protein results in inability to repair cell walls
Beri Beri
lack of vitamin B
Mineral
naturally occurring solid chemical substance that is formed through geological processes and that has a characteristic chemical composition
Mutagen
chemical compounds that will cause genetic mutation
Carcinogen
cause cancer by damaging sections of DNA that control DNA growth
Teratogen
interferes with development of tissue systems- causes birth defects
Plasticity
describes the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
Metabolism
chemical processes with cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
metabolic rate correlates to body size- smaller animal higher BMR
Philopatric
remaining in one’s natal group or home range as an adult
Strategies
Behaviors or behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive fitness
Sympatric
living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Home range
total area exploited by an animal or social group
Conspecifics
members of the same species
Communication
any act that conveys information
Thermoregulation
vertical posture exposes less of the body to direct sun; increased distance from ground facilities cooling in increases exposure to breezes
Visual surveillance
standing upright provided better view of surrounding countryside (view of potential predators as well as other group members)
Long distance walking
covering long distances was more efficient for a biped than for a quadruped (during hunting or foraging); mechanical reconstructions show that bipedal walking is less energetically costly than quadrupedalism (this is not the case for bipedal running)
Male provisioning
males carried back resources to depended females and young
Anatomy
how the body is formed to create bipedalism
Tool use
how the hominid used tools
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
extinct hominid dated back to 7 MYA
Orroin tugenensis
extinct hominid species
Raymond Dart
anthropologist that is best known for finding Australopithecus africanus
Robert Broom
South African paleontologist- found Australopithecus africanus skull Mrs. Pleas and Australopithecus robustus skull
Louis and Mary Leakey
British archeologists- found many early hominid skulls
Hominid Radiation
Several hominid species living at same time and coexisting in some habitats -- Divergent specializations
Prosimian radiation
Eocene epoch- 60 genera might have lived at the same time
Shatter
pieces broken off
Debitage
waste material produced during percussion reduction and the production of chipped stone tools
Taung
South African archeology site- place where the Taung child skull was found
Swartcrans
South African archeological site- Robert Broom’s site- limestone deposits
Dmansi
earliest fossil site of Homo erectus
Dmansi site shows
possible earlier form of home leaving Africa before
Eugene Dubois
(1858-1940)- discovered Java man –skull cap (900 cc’s) and femur
Terra Amada
Contained 3 shelters
Trephination
Cut the hole on the top of the skull to get rid of evil spirits- but now it is used to relieve pressure on the brain
Length of Appendages deals with Allen’s Rule
True
Primate Vision is…
Stereoscopic- binocular- and color
Most living primates have adapted to a __________________.
Arboreal lifestyle
Marmosets are a ________________.
Variety of new world monkeys
Dental Formula for Old world anthropoids.
2:1:2:3
New World Monkey Dental Formula
2:1:3:3
Radiocarbon dating is the most common type of dating
True
Potassium Argon dating dates rocks that have been melted and cooled which tells how old the site is
True
Primates that are awake during the day are_______.
Diurnal
Stereotyped behavior is of emotional expression is__________.
Display
Anthropological holism contains are aspects of humans- biology- and culture
true
Know the four subsets of anthropology
Physical- linguistics- cultural- archeology
Physical anthropology studies is
Primate- human paleontology- and human variation
Mendel experimented with ¬¬¬¬¬¬_________.
hybrids
Exogamy is ____________.
Mating outside of group
Population and size will increase exponentially while food supplies stay stable
Came up from Malthus- who is an economist