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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Germ cells consist of what two things?
eggs and sperm
This phase has only a haploid number of chromosomes (23) only 1/2 the DNA of the normal cell
meiosis
This phase results in diploid body exact copies of the original cell. this happens all the time with our cells to replace themselves.
mitosis
What does the female gamete (ova or egg) divide into? and which one turns into the baby.
secondary oocyte and polar body.
the secondary oocyte later becomes the baby.
Spermatogenesis
Primary and secondary spermatocyte
nucleas compacted into the head of the sperm known as the ____ (part that gets fertilized) with the tail.
acrosomal cap
Where does the sperma and ovum fuse together in the fallopian tube.
outer thirdq
High ____ levels propel the ovum through the tube by peristalsis. thin cervical mucus allows the sperm to move up into the uterus and fallopian tube.
estrogen
How long is the ova fertile for?
24 hours
how long can the sperm survive after ejaculation, but is highly fertile for 24 hours.
48-72 hours
Transit time between ejaculation and reaching the fallopian tube can be as short as 5 minutes but generally takes about __-___ hours.
4-5
____ ____ facilitate movement of both the sperm toward the ovum and ovum toward the sperm.
fallopian tubes
This is the term for the removal of plasma membrane overlying the acrosomal area. This occurs within the female reproductive tract in about 7 hours.
capacitation
At the moment of fertilization the secondary oocyte completes meiosis, the ____ ____ is ejected and the nuclei of the ovum and sperm approach one another and unite.
polar body
At the moment of fertilization ____ pair to form a diploid zygote (46) the complete number forms the genetic code for the new human being. The sex is determined at that time on the 23rd pair of chromosomes xx female or xy male. It is the sperm which carry the y chromosome and determine whether the zygote will be male or female. Th ova only carry the x chromosome
chromosome
These twins are dizygotic and have 2 separate ova and sperm. 2 placents, chorions, amnions and can be same or different sex. Chance of having twins increases with maternal age and until about 35. Inherit genetic predisposition to release multiple ova.
fraternal
these twins are monozygotic- single fertilized ovum with common placenta. They originate from the same fertilized ovum and the number of amnions and chorions depends on timing of division.
identical
If division occurs with in ___ days of fertilization (before the inner cell mass and chorion are formed) two embryos, two amnions and two chorions will develop
3
if division occurs about ___ days after fertilization (when the inner cell mass is formed and the chorion cells have differentiated but those of the amnion have not), two embryos develops with separate amniotic sacs. These sacs will eventually be covered by a common chorion; thus, there will be a monochorionic diamniotic placenta.
5
If the amnion has already developed approximately ____ ____ days after fertilization, division results in 2 embryos with a common amniotic sac and a common chorion (a monochoronic mono amniotic placenta). This happens 1 % of the time.
7-13
This stage is the 1st 14 days of human development. this stage is characterized by rapid cellular multiplication and differentiation and the establishment of the embryonic membranes and primary germ layers. Implantation occurs between this stage and intrauterine development.
preembryonic stage
Cellular multiplication
Begins as the zygote moves toward the uterine cavity.
Rapid mitosis called ____ occurs. blastomeres form a solid ball- morula which is only 12-16 cells.
The inner mass: blastocyst develops into the embryo.
The outer layer: trophoblast develops into the chorion.
cleavage.
The primary germ layer consists of ___,___,____. All tissues, organs, organ systems develop from these embryonic membranes. These form at implantation and the chorion and chorionic villi form and become the placenta.
Amnion: the ectoderm , contains amnionic fluid
Surrounds embryo and yolk sac except side of cord to placenta; forms the bag of waters.
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
Implantation or ____ occurs in between cellular multiplication and cellular differentiation. The Blastocyst is nourished by uterine glands and trophoblast attaches to the endometrium for nourishment.
nidation
During Implantation the blastocyst burrows into endometrium (toward maternal capillaries) until covered. After implantation the endometrium is now called the ____.
decidua
____ exchange functions occur only in those fetal vessels which are in intimate contact with the covering synctytial membrane. Also metabolic and nutrient exchange occures here alos with fetal respiration, nutrition, and excretion.
placenta
The _____ has 2 parts the fetal and the maternal. It also originates with development of chorionic vili.
placenta
The placenta begins and develops from the ___ week of development to 20 weeks. The maternal portion is decidua basalis and circulation. the fetal portion: chorionic vili and circulation, covered by amnion and is shiny from amnionic membranes.
3rd
Placenta
The third layer of mesoderm forming, there is the anchoring villi that forms partitions or septa of the placenta called _____ these are very vascular, exhanging nutrients and gases.
cotyledons
This hormone involved in the placenta keeps the corpus luteum functioning after the 11th week of pregnancy. The corpus luteum secretes increased estrogen and progesterone. Then the placenta itself will produce the hormones and the corpus luteum can fade out.
hCG
Male fetus helps with ____ production.
testosterone
This hormone is used for the basis of pregnancy tests (available in maternal serum for 8-10 days after fertiliztion and detectable maternal urine at the time of missed menses) it maintains the pregnancy. If levels are low and deteriorate the woman generally losses the baby.
hCG
This hormone is responsible for maternal changes which support pregnancy.
hPL
What cushions and protects from injury, is involve in temp control, goes from 30-350 ml to 700-1000 ml, moves back and forth across the placenta, fetal urine increases its volume and fetus breaths this fluid (400ml).
amniotic fluid
The term for too little amniotic fluid < 400 ml.
oligahydraminos
The term for too much amniotic fluid, > 200 ml.
hyraminos/ polyhydraminos
This consists of one large vein and 2 smaller arteries. It is surrounded and protected by Wharton's Jelly which prevents compression of cord in utero along with high blood volume. It can be knotted "true Knot" due to a long cord, which may cause problems in fetal oxygenation.
umbilical cord
____ cord: fetal activity causes the cord to encircle the neck, sometimes more than once.
Nuchal
Highest level of 02 concentration is delivered to head, neck, brain, and heart; lesser concetrations is delivered to abdominal organs, and lower body. This pattern lead to ____ development
cephalocaudal
During this phase embryo is approximately 3 cm. Tissue differentiates into essential organs and main external features develop. most vulnerable to teratogens at this time.
embryonic
By the end of 28 days, heart is beating and begining circulation. ____ is differentiated into 5 areas and 10 cranial nerve pairs recognizable.
Brain
_____ stage: at the end of the 8th week. Every organ system now developed. Just need to refine and develop. FHT by doppler @ 8-12 weeks (20 weeks using a fetoscope)
fetal stage
sex can be determined at ___ weeks
16
What happens around 17-18 weeks
hard tissue for teeth
When does quickening occur
20 weeks
Respiratory movement begin around 24 weeks and around ___ weeks surfactant needed for breathing. Eyes open and close and can breathe outside uterus.
28
Around 32 weeks fingernails and toenails, fat is being laid down. Around __-___ antibodies form mother and fetus fills total uterus
38-40
Period of maximum brain growth and myelination begins within ___ lunar month before birth and continues during the 1st six month after birth where there is a 2 fold increase in myelination.
4th
AT 8-12 weeks fetal heart tones can be heard by a ____.
doppler
20 weeks- heartbeat be heard with fetoscope, mother feels movement, baby develops regular schedule, hads can grasp, ___ protects, lanugo except on palms and soles, hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes present.
vernix
24 weeks baby weight approximately ___ lb __ ounces, activity increasing, beginning fetal respiratory movements.
1lb 10 ounces
AT 28 weeks the baby is ____ of its final size
2/3
This is the thin protective membrane that contains amniotic fluid.
amnion