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43 Cards in this Set

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This part of the blood consists of proteins, water, and solutes such as salts and potassium?
plasma
This blood cell's primary function includes transport of gases and assistance in maintaining acid base balance. They are primarily composed o fa large molecule called hemoglobin.
erythrocytes
This type of blood cell consists of agranulocytes and granulocytes?
leukocytes
This type of granulocyte is phagocytic especially during the early phase of inflammation.
neutrophil
This type of granulocyte is phagocytic and is involved in the allergic response and protects from parasitic infections.
eosinophil
This type of granulocyte is involved in the inflammatory and allergic response. They release bradykinin, heparin, histamine, serotonin and are limited in their role of phagocytosis.
basophil
This is an agranular leukocyte whose main function is related to the immune response.
lymphocyte
This type of agranular leukocyte are potent phocytic cells. They can ingest small or large masses of matter, such as bacteria, dead cells, tissue debris, and old or defective RBCs. They are the second type of WBCs to arrive at the scene of an injury. They later migrate into tissues and become macrophages.
monocytes
These also known as platelets aid in blood clotting. They maintin capillary integrity by working as "plugs" to close any openings in the capillary wall. They have a life span of 5-9 days.
thrombocytes
This is the production of blood cells.
hematopoiesis
Where are blood cells produced?
within the bone marrow
This is a nondifferentiated immature blood cell that is found in the marrow and it forms all 3 types of blood cells (rbcs, wbcs, platelets) by differentiating into what the body needs at that time.
stem cells
This the largest population of blood cells. They carry and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the body tissues.
RBCs or erythrocytes
This is the red protein pigment that attaches to and carries oxygen.
hemoglobin (Hgb)
Iron is an essential component of Hgb and a deficiency of iron will result in iron deficiency _____.
anemia
These are the first responders to injury and aid in blood clotting. Maintain capillary integrity by working as plugs to close openings in capillary wall. They are also important in the process of clot shrinkage and retraction.
platelets (thrombocytes)
The body seeks to maintain ____ in the blood clotting process. A constant, steady state with not too much bleeding and not too much clotting. around 300,000 platelets is good.
homeostasis
____ response is when the body closes spot off to stop bleeding , it is immediate local vasoconstriction and occurs in response to injury (20-30 minutes)
vascular
____ response- collagen from the inner lining of a blood vessel comes in contact with platelets and causes them to get sticky and clumpy.
platelet
________ factors- inactivate plasma proteins circulate then become activated by either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
clotting
Where is the spleen located?
left upper quadrant
This organ is hematopoietic during fetal development. It filters and removes old defective rbcs using phagocytes, recycles iron for reuse by the bone marrow. Contains a large supply of lymphocytes and monocytes and this is where 30% of platelet mass is stored.
spleen
___ is the means whereby proteins and fat from the GI system and some hormones are able to return to the circulatory system. It also returns excess interstitial fluid to the blood, preventing lymphedema.
lymph
Primary reason for this is a developmental defect such as arterialvenous malformation. secondary results from outside factor compromising the functioning of lymph system. Radiation, surgery, infection, trauma, removal of lymph nodes or long air travel. It is generally firm and non pitting
lymphedema
This is an infection caused by sever trauma to the lymph system?
lymphangitis
What nursing measures will be required fro a patient experiencing lymphedema or lymphangitis?
usually permanent, elevation or compression stocking may help. Also massaging the areas to help return fluid.
This organ is a filter for the blood and rids the body of many end products in the circulation. Produces all the procoagulants (prothrombin) that are essential to blood coagulation and hemostasis.
Liver
What are the nursing implications for the patient with cirrhosis or liver failure?
Watch for bleeding problems they will have decreased number of clotting factors
What happens to red bone marrow when you age?
It is replaced with yellow (fatty) marrow and generally do not produce as many cells
Aging-
decreased number of stem cells
more diffecult for older adult to compensate during an acute or chronic illness due to decrease reserve capacity.
more prone to infection, problems with clotting, difficulties with oxygen transport
Hgb levels decrease in both sexes after middle age but more rapidly in females.
lower socioeconomic classes at increased risk.
no answer
What two times in a womens life would there be a lower Hgb?
child bearing age and severe menstruating women
What is the main cause of low Hgb levels?
iron deficiency
With this blood test a decreased count would mean anemia, hemorrhage, hemodilution; increased in cases of polycthemia or dehydration
Hgb hemoglobin
This is decreased and increased by the same means as hbg and is normally approximately 3 x's the Hgb value. Can be affected by hydration and also surgery can cause an increase due to the fluids.
Hct hematocrit
WBC anything over _____ mic/L indicates infection, inflammation, tissue injury, death or malignancies.
11,000
A decreased ____ count (leukopenia) is associated with leukemia/bone marrow depression.
WBC
This count helps in determining the cause of illness; many immature neutrophils released in a compensatory nature-left shift.
WBC differential
____ is platelet count < 100,000 and at risk for slow bleeding, below 20,000 risk for hemorrhage.
thrombocytopenia
This is used to determine many inflammatory conditions. Increased during acute and chronic inflammation when cell destruction is occuring. May also be increased with malignancy, MI, ESRD. This is a nonspecific screening test.
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
What is the preferred site for aspiration during a biopsy.
posterior illiac crest
Some doctors believe that checking this node is sufficient enough for checking for cancer because it is the 1st node in a chain.
sentinel nodes
This part of lymphocytes is responsible for humoral immunity
B Cell
This part of lymphocytes is involved in cellular immunity
T cell