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61 Cards in this Set

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Each three month period of pregnancy is called a what?
trimester
What is the term for enlargement of Uterus it is an increase in number of cells= wall thickening; initial changes due to hormones?
hyperplasia
_____ of the total maternal blood volume is contained within the vasculature of the uterus
1/6th
These contractions stimulate blood movement through placenta and are often confused with true labor?
Braxton-Hicks
IN the cervix estrogen stimulation causes an increase in cell number producing a thick tenacious mucus that forms a ___ ____ which is expelled with cervical dilation?
mucous plug
Increase in ____ softens the cervix to dilate
discharge
This sign of vascularization is softening of cervis and increased vascularity?
Goodells sign
This sign is purple discoloratin of the cervix
Chadwick's sign
These cease ovum production during pregnancy?
ovaries
Progesterone secreted by this maintains the endometrium until the placenta assumes the task at 6-8 weeks, then is gone by mid pregnancy
corpus luteum
This all happens to what? hypertrophy/ thickening, increased vascularization and secretions, hyperplasia, acidic secretions (infection prevention but makes the patient more susceptible to monilial infection)
vagina
Increased size and nodularity of the breast is due to what two hormones?
estrogen and progesterone
When do you get colostrum?
12th week of pregnancy
During pregnancy hyperventilation occurs causing tidal volume to increase 30-40% and decreases ______ ______. This causes a 15% increase in 02 consumption.
airway resistance
What happens to breathing patterns during pregnancy?
They go from abdominal to throracic
_____ of pregnancy and epistaxis may occur (estrogen induced edema and vascular congestion of nasal mucosa)
rhinitis
Pressure on diaphragm pushes heart upward and to the left, rotating it ____.
forward
Blood volume is > _____ % over nonpregnant
40-50%
Cardiac output increases and peaks at 20-24 weeks gestation and remains elevated the duration of the pregnancy and pulse rate increase _____ beats.
10-15
Blood pressure should ___ slightly at first but returns to normal toward the end of pregnancy
decrease
Increased blood volume to lower extremeties may cause postural _____.
hypotension
Increased tendecy toward stagnation of blood in the lower extremeties, with a resulting dependent edema and the tendency toward _____ vein formatin in the legs, vulva, and rectum late in pregnancy
varicose vein
Pressure on vena cava when patient is supine : _____ hypotensive syndrome or vena cava syndrome may cause dizziness, pallor and clamminess, patient should lie on left side
supine
Total ____ count increase with iron supplements
erythrocyte
Icrease in plasma volume occurs. the plasma volume is greater than the erythrocyte increase causing a lower _____: physiologic anemia of pregnancy
hematocrit
WBC production equals the increase in blood volume and fibin levels increase placing mom at risk for developing what?
venous thrombosis
Early in pregnancy- nausea and vomitting due to increased levels of ___. Cravins and tast may change, and smells may be a problem
hCG
Gum tissue may become ____ and bleed during pregnancy.
hyperemic
Late in pregnancy- pressure of growing uterus displaces stomach and intestines causing decreased what?
peristalsis
Hyperpigmentation of skin during pregnancy is due to increased what?
estrogen
____ nigra on midline of abdomen occurs during pregnancy
linea
Facial _____ also called the mask of pregnancy occurs
chloasma
Vascular spider _____ appear on chest, neck, face, arms, and legs. There is also decreased hair growth, 1-4 months post delivery, and most replaced by 6-12 months post delivery.
nevi
Center of gravity changes with resulting postural changes. Diastasis recti occur in the abdominal muscle and ____ of extremeties as a result of pressure on peripheral nerves.
parasthesis
Intraocular pressure decreases, slight thickening of ____ and these changes are temporary and may cause problems while wearing contact lenses.
cornea
Recommended weight gain is ____ pounds (less for women already overweight)
25-35
Water metabolism changes-
- Increased level of hormones: steroid sex hormones affect ____ which affects fluid retention and lower serum protein influences fluid balance. Extra water is needed for the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and the mother's increased blood volume, interstitial fluids and enlarged organs.
sodium
Nutrient Metabolism-
-The fetus demonds most of it's fat and protein in the 2nd half of the pregnancy, doubling in weight in the last ______ weeks.
6-8
______ enlarges slightly due to increased vascularity and hyperplasia of gladular tissue. Basal metabolic rate increases as much as 25% during pregnancy and returns to prepregnancy levels with in a few weeks postpregnancy.
thyroid
_______ is produced by the anterior pituitary and causes ovum groth.
follicle stimulating hormone
______ brings about ovulation.
lutenizing hormone
The _____ prolongs corpus luteal phase which maintains endometrium for conception and implantation.
pituitary gland
______ (an antidiuretic hormone) causes vasoconstriciton that icreases blood pressure and regulates water balance.
vasopressin
_____ produces uterine contractility and ejection of milk post partum.
oxytocin
______ produce the hormone cortisol which regulates carbohydrates and protein metabolism
adrenals
_____ produces more insulin for the increased needs of the pregnant women, gestational diabetes is of concern.
pancreas
____ ____ ______ stimulates prgeterone and estrogen production by the corpus luteum to maintain the pregnancy.
Human chorionic gonadotropin
_____ _____ ____ or human chorionic somatomammotropin is an antagonist of insulin regulating maternal needs for metabolism of glucose to favor fetal growth
human placental lactogen
____ stimulates uterine developement as early as 7 weeks, provides suitable environment for the fetus
estrogen
____ maintains the pregnancy by inhibiting uterine contractility thus prevents early spontaneous abortion
progesterone
____ inhibits uterine contractility, diminishes strength of uterine contractions, and aids in the softening of the cervix.
Relaxin
______ are possibly responsible for maintaining reduced placental vascular resistance=decreased amounts found iwth preeclampsia/eclampsia
prostaglandins
This is the softening of the lower segment of the uterus it is an objective change.
hegar's sign
This is ease in flexing body of uterus against cervix?
mcdonalds sign
______ inhibition test 95% accurate for first morning urine specimen
hemagglutination
____ also known as Latex Agglutination test 95 % accurate.
immunoassay
Urine- no clumping of cells occurs when the urin of a pregnancy woman is added to hCG sensitized RBCs of ____.
sheep
Home/OTC pregnancy tests
-are also immunoassay tests and detect even low levels of ____ in urine. Few false positives, but higher rate of false negatives, follow up is signs of pregnancy develop.
hCG
fetoscope detects heartbeat from ____ weeks of pregnancy.
17-20
A doppler can be used from ____ weeks and the fetal heart rate should be between 120-160. Count and compare to maternal puls. Differentiat from a maternal aortic pulse or uterine souffle.
10-12
concept of ____ is unintentional development of pregnancy symptoms in the father such as fatigue, increased appetite, difficulty sleeping, depression, headache and backache.
couvade