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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Apparatus theory associated with…
onature of film projection,
ovideo playing,
odarkness of theatre/lightness of daytime tv,
otextual component of what is screened,
opsychic mechanism engaged
(apparatus theory) identification…
spectator becomes part of the apparatus that was made for them
Apparatus theory Derived from
semiotics and psychoanalytic ideology and critique
(Apparatus theory) metz 4 points
o(semiotic, revive semiotics, psychoanalysis) hidden meanings
o Cinematic institution is not just the cinematic industry, but also “mental machinery” – another industry which spectators accustomed to cinema… which has adapted them to the consumption of films
o Agrees with Baudry (analogy between screen and mirror, and how it reenacts the pre-oedipal moment of identification)
o Disagrees in the sense that the cinema does not reflect back the spectator’s own image
Lacan and Althusser ( did not write about cinema)*** 4 points
o Meeting point is at the mirror phase when the infant is put in front of a mirror and realizes that he is whole and detached from everyone else.
o Process of viewing is linked to the illusion of a solid ego given by the mirror phase
o Spectators are blinded by the lens. They, like the films they watch, are filled with discourse unknowable to themselves
Althusser (Marxist)(5 points)
o Social assumptions about apparatus theory come from him
o Sees the economic base of apparatus theory as the productive forces and the relations of production.
o RSA – repressive state apparatus - The work is done by sanction and interdiction (police, courts, prisons etc). Bodies that enforce law to order
o ISA – ideological state apparatus – religious and educational institutions, family, cultural. Follow law because of ideological pressure.
o Ideology: “representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence”
 Ex ideology of religious faith = illusionary, but alludes to reality
Baudry (more?)(5 points)
o Experience of watching a film would be best understood as a set of objects (technology of cinema and the narrative), plus the relations to those objects (credulity, identification and fantasy)
o Film’s capacity to be both an “impression of real” and “more than the real”
o ***made the connection of apparatus theory (Althusser) and psychoanalysis (Lacan) bottom
o Cinema is an illusion of movement that we mistake for actual movement. It is a surrogate of our desire.
o When our vision roams freely, the world exists for it
Main critique (5 points)
o By female scholars claiming that there is a failure to distinguish between the experiences + psychic mechanisms between male and female spectators
o No mechanism for predicting just how the spectators process the info
o Very mechanistic mode of inquiry
o Did not take into non-visual aspect. i.e. sound
o Application of Lacanian theory is not always correct
Positive aspects
o Emphasis on questions of ideology and the interplay of the machine, text, culture, person guaranteed that film theory would not be caught in formalism of much literary criticism
o Points out that there is a problem with the exclusive concentration on representation. Materiality and perception they too have their place