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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define anatomy
science of structure
Define physiology
science of body functions
Name three key clinical observational techniques
palpation
auscultation
percussion
What are the 6 levels of anatomical organisation?
chemical
cellular
tissue
organs
systems
oranism
What are the 6 key life processes?
metabolism (sum of all chemical processes)
responsiveness (homeostasis)
movement
growth
differentiation (cellular)
reproduction
What is anatomical position
standing upright
facing observer
eyes facing forward
arms at sides
palms turned forwards
What is prone position?
Lying face down
What is supine position?
Lying face up
What is a plane?
An imaginary flat surface that passes through the body
What is a section?
A section results when a plane is cut through the body
Describe the saggital plane
* divides the body into left and right sides
* midsaggital produces equal halves
* parasaggital produces unequal halves
Describe the frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body/organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior)
Describe the transverse plane
divides the body/organ into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
Describe the oblique plane
a plane at an oblique angle
Define superior
higher
Define inferior
lower
Define dorsal (posterior)
at the back
Define ventral (anterior)
at the front
Define medial
nearer to the midline of the body
Define lateral
farther from the midline of the body
Define proximal
nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk
Define distal
farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk
What is a body cavity?
space within the body that protects, separates and supports internal organs
Define the dorsal cavity
1) cranial cavity, holds the brain, formed by skull
2) vertebral canal, contains the spinal cord
Define the ventral body cavity
1) thoracic cavity above diaphragm
2) abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm
Define serous
2 layers with fluid in between
Define mediastinum
Everything in the thoracic cavity that is not the lungs
Describe the saggital plane
* divides the body into left and right sides
* midsaggital produces equal halves
* parasaggital produces unequal halves
Describe the frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body/organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior)
Describe the transverse plane
divides the body/organ into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
Describe the oblique plane
a plane at an oblique angle
Define superior
higher
Define inferior
lower
Define dorsal (posterior)
at the back
Define ventral (anterior)
at the front
Define medial
nearer to the midline of the body
Define lateral
farther from the midline of the body
Describe the abdominopelvic regions
See image
What is the cell membrane?
A flexible but sturdy, semipermeable barrier that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell
Describe the cell membrane
Sea of phospholipids on which proteins float like icebergs
What is a phospholipid?
Hydrophilic head (phospho) + hydrophobic tail (lipid)
What are membrane proteins used for?
Ion channels (ie, Na+)
Transporters (like ion channels)
Receptors
Enzymes (catalysts)
Linkers (within/outside cell)
Identity markers (ie blood type, immune system)
What is the cytoplasm?
Cytosol + organelles (except nucleus)
Draw a cell and label:
1. cell membrane
2. nucleus
3. cytoplasm
4. smooth ER
5. rough ER
6. ribosome
7. mitochondrion
8. lysosome
9. golgi complex
As per image
What are organelles?
Specialised structures within the cell with characteristic shapes and functions
What is the cytoskeleton?
made up of proteins:
* microfilaments
* intermediate filaments
* macrotubules

Shape and motion
What is the centrosome?
Organelle that plays a critical role in cell division
What are cilia?
short, hair-like projections
ie - respiratory tract, fallopian tubes...
Move substances across the surface of the cell
What are flagella?
Longer projections that can move an entire cell - ie, sperm
What are ribosomes?
* sites of protein synthesis
* located on rough ER, in cytoplasm and in mitochondria
* spherical
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
* network of membranes surrounding nuclear membrant
* rough ER and smooth ER
What is the rough ER?
Has ribosomes attached - site of protein synthesis
What is the smooth ER?
No ribosomes attached - site of synthesis of fatty acids and steroids
What is the golgi complex?
* Looks like a stack of pancakes with bits budding off on the ends

* modify, sort and package proteins for transport to different destinations
What are lysosomes?
* Spherical
* membranous vesicles filled with digestive enzymes
* digest foreign substances, autophagy & autolysis
What is the mitochondria?
* powerhouse of the cell
* responsible for energy production
* may have 100s or 1000s in each cell depending on energy requirements
* transforms sugar and oxygen into energy
* capsule shaped with an outer and an innner membrane
What is the nucleus?
* The "director" of cellular activities
* most cells have single nucleus
* contains cell's genetic material (DNA, made of chromasomes)
Describe the nucleus
double membrane
outer membrane continuous with rough ER
nucleoli produces ribosomes
What is the role of protein in the cell?
structure
hormones
antibodies
enzymes
How does protein synthesis occur?
1) Genetic info in DNA is copied by mRNA (TRANSCRIPTION) and mRNA leaves the nucleus

2) In the cytoplasm/rough ER, mRNA attaches to a ribosome and TRANSLATES the DNA to form proteins
What are cell junctions?
contact points between cell membranes of tissue cells
What are the 4 types of cell junctions?
tight junctions
adherens junctions
desmosomes & hemidesmosones
gap junctions
What is a tight junction?
weblike
prevents contents from leaking into surrounding areas
stomach, intestines, bladder...
What are adherens junctions?
holds epithelial cells together
What are desmosomes and hemidesmosomes?
similar to adherens junctions
hemi = half
What are gap junctions?
Tiny space between plasma membranes of 2 cells

Permit electrical and chemical mesages to pass between cells
List the 4 types of tissue.
Epithelial
connective
muscular
nervous
Where would you find epithelial tissue?
covers body surfaces
forms glands
lines hollow organs (lumens), cavities and ducts
Describe epithelial tissue.
* Avascular
(gets nutrients from underlying connective tissue)
* covering/lining & glandular types
* good nerve supply
* rapid cell division (heals well)
* 1 layer if absorbtion happens
* multiple layers if it is in a high traffic area
How are covering/lining epithelia described
1) as simple (1 layer) or stratified (multiple layers)

AND

2) as
squamous (flat)
cuboidal (cube shaped)
columnar (column shaped)
transitional (can change shape)
What is glandular epithelium?
* Makes up secreting portion of glands
* Endocrine glands secrete hormones (adrenal glands, thyroid glands...)
* Exocrine glands may secrete mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, digestive enzymes...
What is connective tissue?
* Binds, supports & strengthens other body tissues
* protects & insulates internal organs
* compartmentalises structures
* does not usually occur ON body surfaces
* highly vascular
* nerve supply
* includes blood, bones, fat, cartilage
* 2 basic elements - cells + extracellular matrix
consists
What is the extracellular matrix in connective tissue?
Protein fibres & ground substances between widely spaced cells


ie: in blood, plasma = extracellular matrix.
Consists of cells, water and albumin (protein).
Do cells in connective tissue touch?
* rarely touch as they are produced and separated by extracellular matrix
What are the types of connective tissue?
1) loose - fluid like, subcutaneous layer, adipose tissue
2) dense connective tissue - thicker, denser, tendons & ligaments
3) cartilage
4) bone
5) blood
6) lymph
What are the two types of membranes?
1) epithelial membrane = epithelial layer plus underlying connective tissue layer (ie, mucous membranes, skin...)

2) synovial membrane = lines joints, contains connective tissue but no epithelium
What does muscle tissue do?
posture
movement
generation of heat
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
1) skeletal - voluntary, manu nucleated, striated appearance, cylindrical

2) cardiac - involuntary, only in heart, striated, one nucleus, step-like appearance

3) smooth - inside intestines, bladder etc. Involuntary, NOT striated, tapered ends, one nucleus.
What are the functions of nervous tissue?
sensory
integration
motor
What are the cell types in nervous tissue?
1) neurons - cell body, tree like endings to receive messages

2) neuroglia - support cells for neurons
What is homeostasis?
condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment
Why is homeostasis important?
Continually being disrupted by external (heat cold, lack of oxygen) and internal stimuli (psychological stresses, exercise)

If it's not maintained, death may result
How does homeostasis work?
Feedback loop:
* receptors monitor controlled condition
* control centre determines next action
* effector produces a response that changes the controlled condition
Describe the two types of feedback system.
1) negative feedback = opposing the action that is disrupting homeostasis

2) positive feedback = increases change that is causing disruption, ie childbirth
What are the 11 systems of the human body?
1. integumentary
2. skeletal
3. muscular
4. nervous
5. endocrine
6. lymphatic
7. cardiovascular
8. respiratory
9. digestive
10. reproductive
11. urinary
What is a disorder?
Abnormality of function
What is a disease?
homeostatic imbalance with distinct symptoms and signs
Define diagnosis
skill of distinguishing one disease from another
Define epidemiology
Study of disease on a population level
Define pharmacology
how drugs are used to treat disease
How is the nervous system organised?
* Central NS = brain and spinal chord

* peripheral NS = sensory and motor nerves, including:
cranial nerves
spinal nerves
peripheral nerves
sensory nerves
enteric nervous system
What are the 3 basic functions of nervous tissue?
1. sense changes (receptors)
2. interpret and remember changes
3. react to changes (effectors)
Show how the nervous system is organized by drawing an org chart
See image
What are the subdivisions of the PNS?
1. Somatic (voluntary) NS (SNS)
2. Autonomic (involuntary) NS (ANS)

2a) sympathetic division (fight/flight)
2b) parasympathetic division (rest/digest)

3. Enteric NS
Name and label the parts of the brain
See image
Describe the brain
* largest organ
* 4 main parts - brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrm, diencephalon
* 2 hemispheres - R&L, separated by corpus collosum
What does the brain do?
Receives sensory input
integrates new and stored info
makes decisions
causes motor activities
Describe the brain stem
* major pathway from brain to lower body
* makes sure basic bodily functions happen, ie breathing
* medulla oblongata (bottom)
* pons (middle)
* midbrain (top)
Describe the cerebellum
*2nd in size to cerebrum
*contains nearly 1/2 neurons in brain
* compares what we're doing with what we think we're doing
* enables coordination
Describe the diencephalon
* Between brainstem and cerebrum
* thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

* emotioal responses
* control centre for ANS
Describe the cerebrum
AKA cortex
*2 hemispheres (R&L)
* L hemi for R side of body
*4 lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occiputal)
*seat of intelligence - higher functions, decision making, judgement, vision, copying, hearing...
* grey matter overlying white matter
* folds = gyrus (pl. gyri)
* grooves = sulcus (sulci) if small, fissure if large
* corpus callosum connects hemispheres
Describe cranial nerves
12 pairs
pass through bones of skull
PNS

*voluntary & involuntary muscle control
*glandular tissue
What is the spinal chord?
Extension of the brain
within vertebral column
for travel of sensory & motor info
* protected by bony vertebrae, meninges (connective tissue) & CFS)
Describe the spinal nerves?
31 pairs - mixed sensory & motor
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
Describe the branching of spinal nerves
* dorsal (sensory) & ventral (motor) roots next to spinal cord
* roots come together and then branch out again as rami
* dorsal rami supply skin and muscles of back
* ventral rami supply muscles and structures of limbs and skin
What is histology?
Study of cells
How many types of cells are there in the Nervous System?
2 - neurons and neuroglia
What are neurons?
* specialised cells found in the CNS and nerves and ganglia of the PNS
What do neurons do?
process and transmit information
Describe the structure of a neuron.
* cell body = contains all the things you would find in "normal" cell
* dendrites = conduct impulses towards the cell body (receiving information). Typically short, highly branched, unmyelinated
* axon = conduct impulses AWAY from cell; transmission lines of the NS
*
Draw and lable an axon, including:
* cell & nucelus
* dendrites
* axon hillock
* axon
* Schwann cells & nuclei
* node of Ranvier
* synaptic end bulbs
See image
What are neuroglia?
*non-neuronal cells
*provide support & nutrition
* maintain homeostasis
* participate in signal transmission
* comprise half the volume of the CNS
* can divide (neurons don't)
Name and describe 4 types of neuroglial cells in CNS
1) astrocytes = star shaped, cover blood capillaries to for blood-brain barrier

2) oligodendrocytes (most common) = forms myelin sheath around axons in CNS

3) microglia = phagocytosis

4) ependymal cells = produce CSF, form epithelial membrane lining cerebral cavities & central canal
Name and describe two types of neuroglial cells in PNS
1) satellite = flat cells surrounding neuronal cell bodies in peripheral ganglia

2) Schwann cell - wrap around PNS axons to produce myelin sheath
What is myelination?
* Process of forming a myelin sheath
* myelin sheath = lipid & protein covering
* gaps in myelination called nodes of Ranvier
* creates insulation to speed up conduction of nerve impulses
What is white matter?
myelinated processes
What is grey matter?
nerve cell bodies
dendrites
axon terminals
unmyelinated axons
neuroglia

In spinal cord, grey matter = H shaped inner core

In brain, grey matter = thin outer shell covers surface of the brain