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96 Cards in this Set

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Define. Feudalism
500 Middle Ages- 110 Dark Ages
Middle Ages
500 the decline of Rome- 1400 the rebirth or renaissance of culture, learning, art and science- hidden, saved, or preserved the Roman church
where was the treaty of verdun?
Western Europe
What caused the treaty of Verdun?
weak culture, economy, and no law and order
who were the invaders of Western Europe?
vikings
where do the vikings attack first and what to the people do in response?
towns- the people moved to the country thinking they'd be safer
what is Europe vulnerability with its rulers?
weak kings who need protection and land
feudalisms effects
social (new system & the way and where people live), political, and economic (governing, protection, and keeping order)
name of The land Lords give to importat vassals to gain loyalty and protection
FIEF
another name for king and another name for nobles below him
lord, vassals
When things get complex what comes about?
Leige Lord
Define Leige Lord.
group your more Loyal to which is who you fight when you have the more money and two groups are trying to fight you
Land with loyalty and order where all the people lived- totally self-suffient, THE economic unit with housing, farming, and shops to fix things
The Manor
What is in The Manor?
castle, fields, homes for those who worked on the fields, a church, shops, and a source of water
crop rotation & fallow
put things in all units except one & one section left not farmed
people who worked on the fields in The Manor
Serfs
reasons for decline of Feudalism
rise of power of kings and re-growth of towns b/c of increase in trade
what did the Catholic church have and who ruled it?
education, culture, and wealth - pope
pope
governs the papal states and becomes not only a religious leader but a secular leader
Church laws with caused the creation of Church courts (Truce of God)
Canon Laws
2 kinds of punishment with Canon Laws
excommunication (one person is completely broken off) and interdict (everyone is punished for what the religious leader did
who appoints bishops?
Lay investiture
Pope Gregory the VII
was appointing bishops upseting the kings
What is the main cause of Feudalism dieing?
Crusades
who ruled the Byzantine Empire?
Alexius I
who invaded the Byzantine Empire?
Seljuk Turks who were Muslims
what did Alexius I ask of the pope
to help him fight the Muslims since they're both Christian
what were the Muslims doing to the Christians Holy Land in the Middle East
limiting the number of Christians who could pilgramige there because they thought it was Holy to them too
Pope Urban II
Clermont 1095 calls on Western Europeans to help Alexius fight and save the Holy Land- "God wills it"
what was the fight pope urban helped alexius with called?
Crusade War (CRUX-cross)- war of the cross
Why did Pope Urban help Alexuis
would reunite W. & E. with him as ruler, religious reasons, Holy land is in Christian control, got Christians to stop fighting eachothers and start fighting Muslims, wealth, honor religion (you'll go to heaven), social status, adventure, and land for younger sons
goal of 7 Crusades
to save the hold land and help byzantine Empire- all started by a pope
first crusade was started by who?
Urban II
third Crusade was started by who?
"The Crusade of the three kings"- Frederick Barbarossa led rome, Augustus led French, and Richard led English
what happened in the 4th crusade?
did opposite of what it was supposed to do and attacked and destroyed Constantinople
Who led the 7th Crusade and what happened?
Louis XI - they tried their hardest to do what was right, failed, but left a large impact on Europe
who appoints bishops?
Lay investiture
Pope Gregory the VII
was appointing bishops upseting the kings
What is the main cause of Feudalism dieing?
Crusades
who ruled the Byzantine Empire?
Alexius I
who invaded the Byzantine Empire?
Seljuk Turks who were Muslims
what did Alexius I ask of the pope
to help him fight the Muslims since they're both Christian
what were the Muslims doing to the Christians Holy Land in the Middle East
limiting the number of Christians who could pilgramige there because they thought it was Holy to them too
Pope Urban II
Clermont 1095 calls on Western Europeans to help Alexius fight and save the Holy Land- "God wills it"
what was the fight pope urban helped alexius with called?
Crusade War (CRUX-cross)- war of the cross
Why did Pope Urban help Alexuis
would reunite W. & E. with him as ruler, religious reasons, Holy land is in Christian control, got Christians to stop fighting eachothers and start fighting Muslims, wealth, honor religion (you'll go to heaven), social status, adventure, and land for younger sons
goal of 7 Crusades
to save the hold land and help byzantine Empire- all started by a pope
first crusade was started by who?
Urban II
third Crusade was started by who?
"The Crusade of the three kings"- Frederick Barbarossa led rome, Augustus led French, and Richard led English
what happened in the 4th crusade?
did opposite of what it was supposed to do and attacked and destroyed Constantinople
Who led the 7th Crusade and what happened?
Louis XI - they tried their hardest to do what was right, failed, but left a large impact on Europe
who appoints bishops?
Lay investiture
Pope Gregory the VII
was appointing bishops upseting the kings
What is the main cause of Feudalism dieing?
Crusades
who ruled the Byzantine Empire?
Alexius I
who invaded the Byzantine Empire?
Seljuk Turks who were Muslims
what did Alexius I ask of the pope
to help him fight the Muslims since they're both Christian
what were the Muslims doing to the Christians Holy Land in the Middle East
limiting the number of Christians who could pilgramige there because they thought it was Holy to them too
Pope Urban II
Clermont 1095 calls on Western Europeans to help Alexius fight and save the Holy Land- "God wills it"
what was the fight pope urban helped alexius with called?
Crusade War (CRUX-cross)- war of the cross
Why did Pope Urban help Alexuis
would reunite W. & E. with him as ruler, religious reasons, Holy land is in Christian control, got Christians to stop fighting eachothers and start fighting Muslims, wealth, honor religion (you'll go to heaven), social status, adventure, and land for younger sons
goal of 7 Crusades
to save the hold land and help byzantine Empire- all started by a pope
first crusade was started by who?
Urban II
third Crusade was started by who?
"The Crusade of the three kings"- Frederick Barbarossa led rome, Augustus led French, and Richard led English
what happened in the 4th crusade?
did opposite of what it was supposed to do and attacked and destroyed Constantinople
Who led the 7th Crusade and what happened?
Louis XI - they tried their hardest to do what was right, failed, but left a large impact on Europe
what caused trade to grow for the growth of towns when Feudalism ended?
French Fair at Troyes
what caused a change in the economy when Feudalism ended?
new class, rise of middle class, deep religious dislike, and R.C. church grew in power with strong popes
what caused world view changes?
new weapons
why were cities walled after Feudalism?
to build up the city but many fires were started so guilds were created
what are guilds?
unions with set prices, controlled membership, and social clubs. they taught- apprentice and when complete was a journeyman
Charter
ruler says ok and rules for that
What financial reason is Feudalism ending?
Banks are growing
where are towns growing?
Flanders and northern Italy b/c come out of ports by the adriatic sea which became the key trading center
the growth of Monarchs caused what?
Britain is attacked by Romans and then when Roman Army eventually leaves Britain is vulnerable for another attack
Who attacks Britain after Romans do?
Angles and Saxons- Angle-Saxon invasion
when angles and saxons join what is there land called and what are their people called?
angle-land (England) and Saxons
who was the Saxons leader who made a critical mistake and what was it?
King Edward the Confessor who had no heirs
who were the two men who claimed the throne after King Edward?
Henry and William Duke of Normandy
what battle came about because of Henry and Wm's fight and when?
1066- Battle of Hastings
who won and what title did he gain?
Wm- Wm the conqueror
with Wm in rule upperclass are called?
Normans- French
Wm's rule- lowerclass are called?
Saxons- Old English
Wm's rule normans and saxons dont get along and it takes them a long time to do what?
unite as a single unit speaking a single language becoming eng. speaking middle eng.
what book did Wm write and what was it about?
Domesday Book accounting everything that happened and is in England so he knows what he can tax
part of the Eng. terr. was in Fr. What did the Eng. do to get the land in Fr.?
marry French women
Terr. in France controlled by English kings?
Angevin Empire
how do the Fr. get the land back from the English?
many hundreds of years of war
what is the family name after Wm dies?
Plantagenet
Henry II
does some things in Legal Field, and creates common law including all people, Jury of peers, and gets involved in church vs. state
Thomas a Becket
good friend of Henry II
what does Henry II appoint Thomas a Becket as and why
Archbishop of Canterbury (The highest church official in England)b/c the archbishop in England died
What does Henry do to Thomas?
Has him murdered because he is more loyal to the church than he is to Henry & becomes St. Thomas a Becket
King John signed what and when?
Magna Carta (an attempt to limit the kings power) 1215
what was the effect of the Magna Carta?
british legislature is formed- Parliment
2 houses in parliment
house of Lords and Commons