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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Vassal
Someone who held land for services
Feudalism
A political and military system in which lords granted land to vassals in return for military services and other forms of assistance
Chivalry
Law/code that the knights had to live by
Mail
Protection that uses small metal hooks bound to each other
it usually takes 5 years to make
Fief
grant of land
Black knights
What the people called those who were knights b/c they were robbers, booters and mercinaries
villein
One who is not subject to the land of the lord, but borrows his land
domain
Manor land that the lord kept for himself
page
Knight in training. He helped dress a knight and put on his armor
three estates
The 3 social classes which were the clergy (spiritual and religous needs) peasants, (agricultural needs) and knights (protected other 2 groups)
serf
people who were bound to the land. they could not leave land unless permitted, which was very rare. They were not slaves but owed to a higher noble
Charlemange
developed a vast empire most of europe, was crowned by pope
Treaty of Verdun
843 Treaty in which Charlemagne's empire was split into 3 parts; one for each of his sons
Philip Augustus
King of France from 1180 to 1223. He recaptured most of the land the British had previously taken. This played a huge role in the expansion of France's Royal power
Henry II
Harsh English King. Established Common Law and the Grand Jury and the Magna Carta.
Fallow
Land unplanted for regaining fertility.
Circuit Judges
Hired Judges for moving around on certain routes
squire
knight's personal servant
primogeniture
land is inherited to the son(s)
lord
noble who receives land from someone higher and gives it to vassals in return for services.
common law
law codes based on judges decisions, throughout the kingdom
regular clergy
the way of living for monks and nuns. They devoted their lives to Christianity, leaving behind all earthly
Benedictine rule
book of codes for the monks to follow. written by St. Benedictine.
Magna Carta
British piece of writing in which King Henry II was forced to sign. It stated that no one was above the law.
Edward I
divided the king's court into 3 parts: court of exchequer, court of common pleas, and court of king's bench
canon law
Church's own code of law
interdict
curch issued a punishment on an entire are in which no religious services could be held aside from baptism. everyone in the area was in danger of eternal damnation
tithe
tax of the church. 1/10 of the income of the individual
simony
people in the hierarchy of the church expected pay
inquisition
anyone who committed heresy was secretly tried and tortured to force a confession. If they refused to confess it meant burning on the stakes. this was developed be the dominicans
William the Conquerer
Took over England in 1066 and ruled until 1087. He altered feudalism so that all lords had to swear allegience to him. The king had all of the authority
Parliment
representatives of the bodies of England. This included the house of Lords and House of Commons
Simon de Montfort
Leader of nobles who revolted against Henry III and he ruled England for several months. He died in battle
Manor system
Feudal system of Europe in the middle ages where the lords gave land to the vassals who gave land to serfs in return for services
Coat of Arms
shield painting knights had to identify themselves. They used colors and shapes because knights could not read
Hugh Capet
French King who began the dynasty of the Capetians
Heresy
The act of speaking out against the Bible or Church
Court of Exchequer
Court that dealt with tax cases and other financial problems
Court of common pleas
Heard cases of Private citizens
Court of King's Bench
Heard cases that involved the King
Gregory VII
Great medieval church leader who became the pope and had excommunicated Henry IV because of lay investiture.
Feudalism is a military and political system NOT A GOVERNMENT that emerges when there is an absence of Government. This system involves land being passed down from each social class (King, lords, vassals, serfs) in return for services. The Lords and Vassals had an honorable relationship, the same man could be both a lord and a vassal, and the bond was personal.
What was feudalism? How did it begin and why? What were the feudal obligations between Lords and vassals?
The monastics thought that to live a perfect Christian life, you had to devote your entire life to Christianity, give up all worldly temptations. The worldly lives of the clergy went against that.
How did the "worldly lives of the clergy go against the view of the monks an nuns as a perfect Christian life?
Parish priest- usually of peasant origin, little formal education, was in charge of 5 of the 7 sacraments
bishop- managed diocese (group of priests) chosen by king or nobles
Archbishop- had all powers of bishop and exersized authority over bishops
Pope and his curia- people who advised the Pope on legal and spiritual matters.
Name and describe the church hierarchy.
In the Middle ages, there was an absence of government. That is when the Church had taken over as the political social and spiritual leader of Europe. (See other question on it for more details) By doing so they controlled the lives of many.
Comment on this statement in detail: "in the middle ages, Europe was the church and the church was Europe.
The pope was the spiritual and political leader
everyone who had positions as feudal lords are advisors to the kings
Canon Law
Pope claimed church as supreme political power
used interdict and excommunications
What were the political roles of the church?
Forbade divorce
did social work; helped widows, orphans, poor people
built hospitals
had learned schools and ran them
mannaged marriages
interdict and excommunication
What were the social roles of the church?
The tithe
forbade and opposed gaining wealth by exploiting others
regulated their own trade routes and harbors
What were the economic roles of the church?