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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
in the 1st 2 weeks of fetal life, cartilage prototypes provide ______&_______
postion and support
carilaginous bones show 1st signs of ___________ at 8 weeks.
ossification
at birth what kind of sutures exist where the bones of the skull meet?
connective tissue
what is one of the few known substances that does not cross the placenta from mother to fetus?
insulin - the baby has to produce it from its own pancreas
what else does not readily cross the placenta?
maternal thyroxin
When screening for PKU at birth the infant is typically screened for ...
hypothyroidism
in infants of mothers with uncontrolled diabetes, maternal hypoglycemia produces fetal________
hyperglycemia, stimulating hyperinsulinemia and islet-cell hyperplasia.
what problems does hyperinsulinemia cause?
hypoglycemia after birth
blocks lung maturity leading to risk of respiratory distress.
causes macrosomia or large baby.
when is the sex of the child determined?
the moment of conception
distinguishing characterisics appear about the ____ week.
9th
sex characteristics are fully differentiated by the ___ week.
12th
When a ___ chromosome is present in the sperm, testes are formed and the child is a male.
Y
What hormone causes formation of the male genitalia?
testosterone
what happens if the mother ingests androgen or androgen-like substance during this stage of pregnancy?
the child, although chromosomally female, may look more male than female at birth because of clitoral growth.
how much of the female's supply of ova is present at birth in the ovaries?
lifetime supply
when does most female hormone production occur?
puberty
how does the fetus respond to maternal hormones?
withdrawal bleeding or vaginal discharge
What is the white, cheesy substance that protects the skin of the fetus called?
vernix caseosa
It is thick at ___ weeks, but continues to decrease until term>
24 weeks
very fine hairs called ___ cover the entire body by ___ weeks.
lanugo; 20 weeks
If twins are fraternal, they are _____.
dizygotic
dizygotic means...
they arise from 2 separate oval fertilized by 2 separate spermatazoa.
with dizygotic twins there are 2 of what three things?
chorion, amnion, placenta
Monozygotic twinning is considered ______ and occurs in __ out of ___ births.
random: 1 - 250 births.
dizygotic twinning occurs in families and increases in frequency with ...
maternal age, parity, and use of fertility drugs.
are congenial anomalities more prevalent in monozygotic or dizygotic twins?
monozygotic.
what is the function of the umbilical cord in the fetus vs. the newborn?
blood flows from the placenta to fetus with oxygen and nutrients; not there in newborn.
ductus venosus in fetus vs. newborn...
allows blood from the vein into the inferior vena cava; no use in newborn
inferior vena cava in fetus vs. newborn...
carries oxygenated blood into the RA; in newborn it returns deoxygenated blood to heart.
foramen ovale in fetus vs. newborn...
blood passes from the RA into LA; newborn closed.
ductus arteriosus in fetus vs. newborn..
blood passes from the pulmonary artery into descending aorta (bypasses the lungs); in newborn it constricts to prevent lung bypass.
umbilical arteries in fetus vs. newborn
returns wastes from fetus to placenta; in newborn, no use.
The life of the fetus is generally measured from the time of ____ or _____ which is called the _____ age.
ovulation or fertilization; ovulation age.
the length of the pregnancy is generally measured from the first day of the last _____ ____ which is called _______age.
menstrual period; gestation age.
When do ovulation and fertilization take place?
about 2 weeks after the last menstrual period.
the ovulation age of the fetus is always __ weeks less than the length of the pregnancy or the _______ age.
2 weeks; gestation