Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 4 controllable risk factors.
- Smoking
- Exercising
- Healthy diet
- Drugs/ alcohol
Name 4 uncontrollable risk factors.
- Age
- Race
- Heredity
- Gender
knowledge of health information needed to make good choices about your health
Health Literacy
anything that increases the likelihood of injury, disease or other health problems
Risk factor
tools for building a healthy life.
Life skills
Name the 6 aspects of health.
- Physical Health
- Emotional Health
- Social Health
- Mental Health
- Spiritual Health
- Environmental Health
the aspect of health that refers to the way your body functions
Physical Health
the aspect of health that refers to expressing your emotions in a positive, nondestructive way.
Emotional Health
the quality of your relationships with friends, family, teachers, and others you are in contact with.
Social Health
the ability to recognize reality and cope with the demands of daily life.
Mental Health
is maintaining harmonious relationships with other living things and having spiritual direction and purpose.
Spiritual Health
keeping your air and water clean, your food safe, and the land around you enjoyable and safe.
Environmental Health
What are some examples of different life skills?
- Assessing your health
- Communicating effectively
- Practicing wellness
- Coping
- Being a wise consumer
- Evaluating media messages
- Using community resources
- Making great decisions
- Using refusal skills
- Setting goals
pressure that results from being swayed to do something because people you look up to are doing
Indirect pressure
pressure that results from someone who tries to convince you to do something you normally wouldn’t
Direct pressure
What are the steps in goal making?
- Safe
- Similar
- Sensible
- Specific
- Supported
- Satisfying
Goals should be _________; you should feel good about yourself when you reach your goals.
your parents or other responsible adults should ________ this goal.
good goals are ______and make sure they are very clear
It’s important that your goals, especially short-term goals, are _______ and realistic.
the goal you set for yourself should be ______ to goals you have set in the past, and new goals should not contradict earlier ones.
ask yourself if this goal can be harmful to you.
What does each letter of the GREAT decision making model stand for?
-Give thought to the problem.
-Review your choices.
-Evaluate the consequences of each choice.
-Assess and choose the best choice.
-Think it over afterward.
goals that can be achieved quickly
Short term goals
Name 3 communication skills.
-Preventing misunderstanding
-Building healthy relationships
-Expressing yourself
state of mental well being in which one can cope with the demands of everyday life
Mental Health
the way of talking that explains how you feel while remaining firm, calm and polite
“I” messages
measure on how much you value, respect and feel confident about yourself
Self esteem
goals that will take you months or years to achieve
Long term goals
sadness and hopelessness that keep a person from carrying out everyday activities; can lead to suicide
What are the 5 stages in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
- Self-actualization:
- Esteem stage:
- Social Stage:
- Safety Stage:
- Physical Stage:
The stage in Maslow's hierarchy of needs when the person reachesthe achievement of the best that a person can be.
The stage in Maslow's hierarchy of needs when the person's need to have self-respect and to achieve their goal is met.
Esteem stage
The stage in Maslow's hierarchy of needs when the person reaches the need for love, affection, and acceptance.
Social Stage
The stage in Maslow's hierarchy of needs when the a person's need for shelter and protection from danger is met.
Safety Stage
The stage in Maslow's hierarchy of needs when the need for food, water, sleep, and exercise is met.
Physical Stage
Positive stresses that energize you and help you reach your goal
negative stress that can make a person sick or keep someone from reaching their goals
Causes of stress are also known _______.
The stressor that includes conditions or events in your physical environment that cause you stress.
Name the 5 causes of stress.
- Environmental
- Biological
- Thinking
- Behavioral
- Life changing
The stressor that includes any major life change, whether positive or negative.
Life changing
The stressor that includes unhealthy behavior.
The stressor that includes any mental challenge that causes stress.
The stressor that includes conditions that make it different for your body to take part in daily activities.
grinding of the teeth
A _________ is a ceremony to remember the deceased
Memorial services
List 3 ways to mannage stress.
- Exercise
- Eat healthy
- Get enough rest
Name all 5 stages of grief.
- Denial
- Anger
- Bargaining
- Depression
- Acceptance
The stage of grief when the person refuses to believe the loss has occurred.
The stage of grief when a person experiences rage, and may even try to blame themselves.
The stage of grief when final attempt at avoiding what is true.
The stage of grief when you experience sadness
The stage of grief when you begin to learn how to live with loss.
Chemical messenger is known as a ______.
What are 5 symptoms of suicide?
- Feeling hopeless
- Using alcohol/ drugs
- Verbal hints
- Taking more risk
- Giving away personal items
What are 3 ways drugs enter the body?
- Implanted pumps
- Inhalation
- Injection
OTC medicine stands for
over-the-counter medicine
any medicine that can be bought without a prescription.
OTC (over the counter)medicine
A written order from a doctor for a specific medicine
Prescription drugs
FDA stands for the _______.
Food and Drug Administration
approves food, drugs, and cosmetics before they can be sold.
any effect that is caused by a drug and that is different from the drug’s intended effect.
Side effects
WHat is included on a prescription label?
- The dose (how much of the medicine to take)
- When you should take the medicine
- How often you should take the medicine
- The length of time you should take the medicine
What is the sequence of drug approval for the FDA?
1) Lab Testing
2) Animal Testing
3) Healthy Human Testing
4) Clinical Testing
5) The drug is accepted or rejected.
This step in approving a drug includes chemical tests or tests on cell cultures
Lab Testing
This step in approving a drug includes drug testing on animals.
Animal Testing
This step in approving a drug consists of volunteers taking the drug and being monitored for side effects and action of drug.
Healthy Human Testing
This step in approving a drug includes testing on humans who have the condition.
Clinical Testing
What is the last step of the approval of a drug?
The FDA then approves or rejects the drug on the data submitted, and the drug becomes a prescription medicine.
drug in wine, beer and liquor that causes intoxication
WHat are the long term effects of alcohol?
- Brain damage
- Irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, enlargement of the heart, anemia
- Hepatitis, liver cancer, cirrhosis
- Can’t absorb vitamins
- Irritation to the esophagus and stomach; stomach bleeding; caner of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach
the intentional improper or unsafe use of a drug.
Drug abuse
Name the 5 stages of alcoholism:
- Social Drinking
- Problem drinking
- Tolerance
- Dependence
- Alcoholism
STage of alcoholism where the drinker only drinks with people at social gatherings
Social Drinking
Stage of alcoholism wher the drinker cannot drink alcohol in moderation
Problem drinking
Stage of alcoholism where the drinker has lost control
Stage of alcoholism where the drinker’s body needs alcohol to function normally
Stage of alcoholism where the drinker needs more alcohol to produce the same effect.
Name 6 effects of alcoholism on family.
- Guilty feelings
- Unpredictable Behaviors
- Violence
- Neglect and isolation:
- Protecting the alcoholic:
- Ignoring one’s own needs
Name the 4 stages of Addiction.
- Drug use
- Tolerance
- Dependence
- Addiction
The stage of addiction that activates the brain reward system.
Drug use
The stage of addiction when the user needs more of the drug for the same effect
The stage of addiction when theuser experiences uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms.
The stage of addiction when the user has lost control of their habit.
Effect of alcoholism on a family when the alcoholic usually spend their time preoccupied with drinking and does not have time to care for family members.
Neglect and isolation
Effect of alcoholism on a family when family member are enabling; helping an addict avoid the negative consequences of his or her behavior.
Protecting the addict
Effect of alcoholism on a family when codependency (the condition in which a family member or friend sacrifices his or her own needs to meet the needs of an addict) comes around.
Ignoring one’s own needs
Name 4 effects of alcoholism on society.
- Society pays huge emotional, physical, and financial costs for alcoholism.
- Many cases of murder, family violence, child abuse, rape, and assault are attributed to alcohol-related violence.
- Leads to missing days of school or work
- Money is spent on treating alcohol related illnesses, and to cover losses due to alcohol-related crime.
Effects of smoking
- Increased plaque, gum disease, tooth decay, yellowing teeth
- Kills he cilia, increasing chance for bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer
- Reduces oxygen to brain, narrows blood vessels, can lead to strokes
- Leads to addiction
- Leads to wrinkles, premature aging, increases chance of skin cancer
- Increased chance of suffering from cancer
students against destructive decisions
AA stands for...
Alcoholics anonymous
a form of therapy for revering alcoholics
AA or Alcoholics anonymous
the highly addictive drug found in tobacco products
What are the 3 things that are known about HIV treatment?
- AIDS cocktail
- Some people have been exposed to HIV and have in fact been proven to be immune.
- Medicines are so powerful they help the immune system stay strong and slow down or stop the reproduction of viral cells. Sometimes the infected person cannot contaminate another person for the disease.
AN __________ is numerous powerful medications used to treat HIV.
AIDS cocktail
What do the medicines used to treat HIV do? (4 things)
Medicines are so powerful they help the immune system stay strong and slow down or stop the reproduction of viral cells. Sometimes the infected person cannot contaminate another person for the disease.
_ out of 10 people in Africa have AIDS because of education, and culture.
Whats does the acronym AIDS stand for?
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
When is it that a patient is said to have AIDS?
A patient is said to have AIDS once they begin to get sick from the HIV. The body stops producing helper T cells after approximately 10 years with HIV.
AIDS is an ______ disease attack weak host
There are more orphans in Africa then any other continent due to this disease.
HIV cannot be transmitted through ______ or ______
saliva or tears
If you have a cut and come into contact with this you can get HIV.
transmits AIDS and is produced by the male reproductive system
Seminal fluid
transmits AIDS and is produced by women’s reproductive system
Vaginal fluid
Mother’s with HIV cannot give this to their babies because it transmit the virus.
Breast milk
What is the problem with people who test at home for HIV?
-People testing privately do not get the treatment they should and can continue to spread it.
- Through independent labs statistics go unreported.
What does the acronym HIV stand for?
Human immuno-deficiency virus
Infects the helper T cells (macrophage).
HIV is a _____, or an epidemic proportion around the world.
HIV is called a ____ ____ because it is consistently changing and mutating it DNA code.
retro virus
virus that is consistently changing and mutating it DNA code.
retro virus
It takes about __ days for your immune system to prepare to fight the HIV.
What happens while your immune system is making antibodies to fight off HIV?
While the immune system is making antibodies to fight the body, the HIV undergoes a complete change in its DNA code and genetic structure making it look EXACTLY like a helper T cell, but cannot function like a helper T cell.
The problem with looking for HIV antibodies is that...
It takes 90 days to make them. So tests will not provide correct readings until 90 days after the virus has been in your body.
What virus has very minimal symptoms and patients sometimes go on without treatment.
No HIV test provides a valid answer, so doctors must look for these in the body.
What are the 3 ways to be tested for HIV?
- Tests at clinics
- Blood tests in your doctors office- Kits in drug-stores for mail away tests.
How are test for HIV conducted?
detect antibodies in your saliva.
Highly contagious fungus
Athlete’s foot
Fungus that results in a scaly, circular rash.
Being vulnerable to certain diseases or sicknesses is known as...
What are the 3 body’s main lines of defense?
- Physical and chemical barriers
- Inflammation
- Immune system
A bacterial infection of the digestive system, usually spread by eating contaminated foods.
What are some examples of teh physical and chemical barries defending your body?
skin, mucous membranes, etc.
A reaction to injury or infection that is characterized by pain and readiness.
Pus is categorized under which of the body's defense systems?
Symptoms of salmonella include...
headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
Salmonella is transmitted by...
eating food from an infected animal or food contaminated by an infected person.
Prevented by thorough cooking of animal food products, hand washing, refrigeration.
How can salmonella be prevented?
thorough cooking of animal food products, hand washing, refrigeration.
any agent that causes disease
What are the 4 ways to spread infectious diseases?
- Person to person
- Food and water
- Environment
- Animals
Receiving an infectious disease by kissing, drinking from the same glass, and sexual contact is known as ___________ tranmission.
Person to person
Receiving an infectious disease from food bourn disease that can be spread when that food is contaminated is known as tramission thorugh ____ ___ _______.
Food and water
Many pathogens live in soil and the spread of infectious disease this way is called transmission through ______.
a crystallized form of cocaine that is smoked, effects are more intense but doesn’t last as long, highly addictive
Crack cocaine
Cocaine is _____ and ______.
snorted and injected
COcaine as well as crack cocaine is made from the _____ _____.
coco plant
What are some of the effects of rohypol?
- loss of inhibitions,
- disoriented,
- loss of memory while on the drug
Effects of this drug include loss of inhibitions, disoriented, loss of memory while on the drug
Rohypol is easy to mix with ______. WHich is why it is a common date rape drug.
This common date rape drug is easy to mix with alcohol.
Rohypol is also known as
Depressant used as a date rape drug
Also known as “roofies”
Heroin is responsible for many of these (2 things).
many deaths and crimes.
Creates “rush” and dream like state that is highly addictive.
Tolerance for this opiate develops rapidly.
What are the 4 ways heroin can be taken?
Swallowed, sorted, smoked or injected
Most commonly abused opiate is ______.
Short term effects include silly and giggly, dizzy, red eyes, sleep, having the munchies, anxiety
Also known as Mary Jane, grass, pot, bud, reefer.
Marijuana can be...
- Can be eaten,
- brewed in tea, and
- smoked
Effects of Marijuana are felt within ______.
Signs of use include depression, lost of interest, carelessness of grooming, hostility and relationship problems.
Long term effects include cancer, weakened immune system, breathing problems, baby defects
What are some of the short term effects of marijuana?
- silly and giggly,
- dizzy,
- red eyes,
- sleep,
- having the munchies,
- anxiety
Effects of LSD include...
-increase energy,
- alters mood, and
- creates strange thoughts and sensations
What are the commone side effects of LSD?
- nausea,
- vomiting,
- dizziness, and
- bizarre body sensations
Thsi drug increase energy, alters mood and creates strange thoughts and sensations
People on LSD are considered to be
tripping or on a trip
Someone who is tripping, or on a trip is considered to be on this drug.
How can a person take LSD?
Tablet form or absorbed through the skin or tongue
What is the most known hallucinogen
smoke that is inhaled through tobacco product and exhaled by a tobacco smoker
Main stream smoke
smoke that escapes from the tip of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe
Side stream smoke
tiny hairs that constantly remove mucus from the lungs
Examples are snuff, and chewing tobacco
Smokeless tobacco
- Contain many different carcinogens and lead to mouth sores and oral cancer
Smokeless tobacco
condition in which infants die in their sleep for unknown reasons
Sudden infant death syndrome
disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and obstructive emphysema
COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
The acronym COPD stands for...
chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
contain tobacco and a spice that makes them taste better making it more appealing
Herbal cigarettes
Examples include cloves, bidis, and kreteks
Herbal cigarettes
Tobacco use costs families...
- over $1500 a year in tobacco products,
- lost wages due to illness,
- medical bills, and
- funeral costs.
Tobacco use costs society...
- $138 billion a year in financial costs due to smoking, accidental fires.
Stimulant, also known as Meth, crystal, or ice.
Methamphetamine is also known as...
- Meth,
- crystal, or
- ice.
Usually appears as white or yellowish crystals called rocks that are crushed and smoked, injected, or snorted.
Highly addictive drug made in illegal labs known as "Meth" labs
Methamphetamine is made in ____ ____ also known as "____" _____
illegal labs;
"Meth" labs
Methamphetamine crystals are called
Methamphetamine crystals can be...
- crushed and smoked,
- injected, or
- snorted.
Synthetic versions of the male hormone
Anabolic steroids or ROIDS
Anabolic steroids are also called...
Drug commonly abused by athletes.
anabolic steroids or ROIDS
Used to assist growth and avoid muscle deterioration
anabolic steroids or ROIDS
List some side effects of anabolic steroids.
- sever acne,
- stunted growth,
- aggression,
- liver cancer,
- paranoia,
- heart disease,
- baldness,
- ROID rage,
- shirking testes,
- reduced sperm count,
- bloating (female),
- rapid weight gain (female), and
- disrupted menstrual cycle (female).
ROIDS are really known as
anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids are commonly abused mostly by