Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/199

Click to flip

199 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the exocrine portion of the ovary responsible for? What is it's mode of secretion?
Producing ova. Cytocrine (whole cell) secretion.
What is the endocrine portion responsible for? What is it's mode of secretion?
Secretion of sex hormones. Merocrine secretion.
What conducts the ova from the ovary to the uterus?
Fallopian tubes.
What is the pear-shaped muscular organ which houses and nourishes the developing embryo and fetus?
Uterus.
What part of the female reproductive system is part of the birth canal?
Vagina (but also cervix)
What does the external genitalia of the female include?
Labia majora and minora, clitoris
What are mammary glands? (broadly speaking) What regulates the functionality of mammary glands?
Mammary glands are specialized glands of the skin.
Hormones produced by the reproductive tract.
What initiates puberty? What releases them?
Gonadotropic hormones released by the pituitary gland.
What is the first menstrual flow called? When does it occur?
First menstrual flow is called menarche. It occurs between age 9-14.
How long is the female reproductive life usually?
30 years.
When does reproductive life end? What age is this at? What happens to the organs of the reproductive system?
Reproductive life ends at menopause age 45-55. The reproductive organs become partially involute and are no longer capable of bearing children.
Where is the ovary attached? What attaches it?
The ovary is attached to the posterior wall of the pelvis by mesovarium and suspensory ligament of ovary.
What occurs at the hilum of the ovary?
Where blood vessels and nerves enter.
What is the medulla of the ovary? What is it mostely made up of? What special vasculature does it contain?
The medulla is the central region of the ovary. It is mostly stroma and moderately dense irregular CT. It is very vascular and contains helicine coiled arteries.
What is the cortex of the ovary? What is the outermost region of the cortex (3 names for the same thing)? What type of epithelium is it?
Cortex = outer region
Germinal epithelium = peritoneum = mesothelium = simple cuboidal epithelium covers it.
What is the tunica albuginea a part of? What type of tissue is it?
The tunica albuginea is a layer of dense irregular CT. It is a part of the cortex of the ovary.
What lies just deep to the tunica albuginea? Describe this tissue and its contents.
Beneath the tunica albuginea lies a moderately dense irregular CT in which fibroblasts look like spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells=stromal cells.
How may ova are present at birth? How about at puberty?
800k-1000k at birth, 200k-400k at puberty.
Where does the ovum undergo development?
Within the ovary.
What surrounds all ova?
A layer of follicular cells.
What does an ovarian follicle consist of?
Ovum and surrounding follicular cells.
What controls follicular development? What secretes this?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secreted by cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Where does the follicle go as it gets bigger?
From the periphery of the cortex into the deep medulla.
What are the phases of follicle development in order? (4)
Primordial follicle-primary follicle-secondary follicle-Graafian follicle.
From where to where does the follicle extend towards the end of its development? Why is this important?
Extends back into the cortex out to the surface of the ovary. Important so that it can release estrogen.
What does the follicle secrete? What does this do?
The follicle secretes estrogen which targets teh uterus and initiates growth of the endometrium of the uterus.
What is it called when the follice ruptures adn releases the ovum into the peritoneal cavity?
Ovulation
What causes ovulation?
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
What does the ruptured follicle form after rupturing?
A corpus hemorhagicum then a corpus luteum and finally a corpus albicans.
What does the corpus luteum secrete? What does this do?
The corpus leuteum secretes progesterone which helps prepare the uterus for implantation of the zygote.
What does the corpus luteum degenerate into at the end of the cycle? Describe it.
Into a corpus albicans (white scar)
Where do primordial sex cells (oogonia) migrate from/to in the developing embryo?
Oogonia migrate from yolk sac endoderm into the urogenital ridge and proliferate.
Where are follicular cells derived from?
From the primitive mesonephros sex cords or coelomic mesodermal derived epithelium that invest individual ovum.
How many oogonia are left at the 5th fetal month, at birth, and at puberty?
5th fetal month = 7 million
Birth = 1 million
Puberty 400,000
How many eggs are ovulated throughout life?
400-450
What are the first formed follicels called? Describe them.
Primordial follicles first formed. They make a single layer of flattened cells around the ovum (DIAGNOSTIC).
Where is the oocyte located initially? Describe it. (5)
Found in the outer cortex.
It is a large cell, with a large nucleolus, vesicular chromatin, a light staining cytoplasm and a diploid chromosome number.
When is the primary oocyte first form and from what is it formed from?
First formed in prenatal life. It is derived from yolk sac endoderm.
What stage are primary oocytes arrested in? Until when?
Arrested in dictotene state of prophase (1st meiotic division) until puberty.
How many primary oocytes start development each menstrual cycle?
10-20
Describe follicular cells. What are they derived from? WHat receptors do they develop at puberty?
They are a single layer of flattened cells. They are derived from germinal epithelium or mesonephros sex cords. They develop receptors for FSH beginning at puberty.
What controls the growth and development of the primordial follicles? What secretes it and what does it cause the follicular cells to do?
Under the influence of ACTVIN secreted by the oocyte, follicular cells undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy to form Primary follicles.
What are the 2 kinds of primary follicles? Describe each of them.
Unilaminar primary follicles = single layer of cuboidal follicular cells
Multilaminar = more than one layer of follicular cells.
What are follicular cells called in the primary follicle?
Granulosal cells.
At what stage does the zona pellucida begin to form?
Primary follicle stage.
What forms the zona pellucida and what secretes this?
The zona pellucida is formed by glycoproteins secreted by the oocyte.
What 3 structures does the zona pellucida contain? What are some of its functions at this stage (2)?
Microvilli of oocyte, filapodia of follicular cells and gap junctions to communicate nutrients and wastes. Also has a barrier function.
What forms layers outside of the follicle just before the secondary follicle stage? What controls the formation of this?
Stromal cells begin to organize and form theca layers on the outside of the follicle. These are NOT under the influence of FSH. Instead, unknown local factors independent of FSY control this.
What is another name for secondary follicle?
Antral follicle.
What is the Secondary Follicle under the control of?
FSH
What forms the space called the antrum? At what stage does this occur?
Granulosal cells secreting fluid in the Secondary follicle stage. (DIAGNOSTIC for secondary follicle)
What is the antrum filled with? What does this "stuff" contain and do?
The antrum is filled with follicular liquor. It is like plasma in composition and contains glycosaminoglycans, steroid binding proteins inhibin, folliculostatin and activin that help regulate FSH and LH release.
What is the large heap of cells that the ova is displaced into during the secondary follicle stage called?
The cumulus oophorus or "egg bearing heap"
What does the cumulus oophorus consist of?
Ova zona pellucida, corona radiata
What is the single layer of cells immediately around the ova called?
The corona radiata.
WHat two layers does the theca form in the secondary follicle?
Theca externa (outer)
Theca interna (inner)
What type of tissue is the Theca externa?
CT
What type of tissue is the theca interna? What do they produce? What do their products then do?
Theca interna is highly vascular tissue. It is steroid producing cells that secrete androgens. These androgens are converted to estrogen by the granulosal cells.
What is the largest follicle stage?
Mature (Graafian) follicle.
Where does the follicle extend into during its mature follicle stage?
Bulges out into the cortex of the ovary.
What are the cells that make up the wall of the mature follicle called?
Membrana granulosa.
What 2 things does the high estrogen levels (from follicles) in blood initiate?
Inhibition of FSH release and inducing an LH surge.
What does the LH surge during the mature follicle stage do? (4)
Completion of 1st meiotic division (1st polar body and secondary oocyte)
Secondary oocyte goes into 2nd meiotic division and stops at metaphase
Secondary oocyte and 1st polar body are ovulated
The follicle is converted into corpus hemorrhagicus.
When is the egg still considered to be diploid until?
Fertilization.
Where and what are excreted during ovulation?
The secondary oocyte and 1st polar body are expelled from the follicle and into the peritoneal cavity.
What happens during the conversion of the follicle into corpus hemorrhagicus?
Walls of follicle collapse, blood fills lumen of follicle (DIAGNOSTIC), and under the influence of LH forms the corpus luteum.
What secretes compounds that acts as a negative feedback to decrease FSH and LH release? What are the names of these compounds? (2)
Granulosal cells secrete folliculostatin and inhibin that act as nagative feedback to decrease FSH and LH release.
What is the corpus luteum formed from and under the influence of what?
Formed from the corpus hemorrhagicus under the influence of LH.
What 2 cells do granulosal cells hypertrophy and differentiate into during corpus luteum formation?
Granulosal luteal cells and theca luteal cells.
What cells make up the majority of the corpus luteum?Where did they develop from?
Granulosal luteal cells that developed from granulosal cells.
What is the appearance of the granulosal luteal cells? (Both physically and staining properties)
Pale staining acidophilic foamy appearance with the cells thrown into large folds as the cells enlarge.
What do the granulosal luteal cells do?
Secrete progesterone and convert androgens secreted by theca luteal cells into estrogen.
What do theca luteal cells develop from? What percentage of the corpus luteum do they make up?
They develop from theca interna and make up 20% of the cells of the corpus luteum?
What do theca luteal cells do?
Secrete progesterone and primarily androgens.
Where are theca luteal cells found and what are their staining properties?
They are found at the periphery of the CL and are smaller and darker than granulosal luteal cells.
What does the progesterone that the theca luteal cells secrete do?
Reduces production of LH and stops corpus luteum formation.
When is the corpus luteum at its larges size?
9 days after ovulation.
What causes the corpus luteum to regress?
LH decreasing
If pregnancy occurs what maintains the corpus luteum and what secretes it?
If pregnancy occurs then the CL is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin from the placenta.
If their is no pregnancy what do the corpus luteutal cells form? How does this process occur?
They are invaded by fine CT to form a scar called the corpus albicans.
How can you tell which corpus albicans is the youngest?
The largest are the youngest as the corpus albicans contracts with age.
How many follicles respond to FSH during each period?
10-20 but only one ova is ovulated.
What happens to the ova that do not come to full maturity during reproductive age?
Undergo atresia, or autolysis and degenerate and die. They form a small scar.
What is the funciton of the fallopian tubes?
To carry ova from ovary to the uterus?
Where does most fertilization of ova occur?
In the oviduct
What CT holds the fallopian tubes in place?
The mesosalphinx.
What are the 4 regions of the fallopian tubes?
Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus and interstial portion.
What does the infundibulum of the fallopian tubes look like? What structure extends from it?
The infundibulum looks like the bell of a horn. It has finger like processes called bimbriae that extend from the edge of the infundibulum.
Describe the ampulla poriton of the fallopian tube. What often occurs here?
IT is an expanded region of the horn with a highly folded luminal surface. Fertilization usually occurs here.
Describe the isthmus of the fallopian tubes.
The narrow poriton of the fallopian tubes.
What is the intersitial portion of the fallopian tubes and what is another name for them?
Interstiatial = intermural ans is the portion traversing the uterine wall.
What type of epithelium lines the fallopian tubes?
Simple columnar.
What are the 3 layers of the fallopian tubes?
Mucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
What 2 cell types are found in the mucosa of the fallopian tubes?
Peg cells and ciliated cells.
What do peg cells do? What is the function of their action? What is diagnostic for them?
Peg cells are secretory cells without cilia (DIAGNOSTIC). They secrete a viscous fluid that protects and provides nutrients to sperm. The protein helps capacitation of the sperm and makes them fully mature and capable of fertilizing ovum.
What do ciliated cells in the fallopiant tubes do? Where are most of them found? What is diagnostic for them?
Ciliated cells have cilia (DIAGNOSTIC). All cilia beat in unison towards the uterus. The greatest number are in the ampullary region. The number decreases towards the uterus.
Where are most of the peg cells found?
Isthmus.
Where si the lumen of the fallopian tubes largest and most complex? Where is it less so?
It is largest and most complex in the ampullary region and it decreases in size as it goes towards the uterus.
How many layers of smooth muscle are there in the muscularis layer of the fallopian tubes? What is their arrangement?
2 layers of smooth muscle. Inner circular, outer longitudinal.
Where is the muscularis layer of the fallopian tubes thickest? Where are most of the blood vessels found?
The muscularis layer is thickest as you move towards the uterus. It is also highly vascularized.
Describe the serosa of the fallopian tubes.
A thin layer of CT covered by peritoneum.
What 3 structures contribute to the movement of the ovum down the fallopian tubes?
Estrogen dialates vessels in the area and the ampulla covers over the ovary.
Ciliated cells sweep ovum down the tube.
Peristaltic waves of the muscularis move the ovum as well.
Where does most fertilization take place?
In the ampulla of the fallopian tubes.
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
When a zygote gets stuck in the folds of the fallopian tubes.
What is gonorrhea? What does it cause?
A bacterial infection of the genital tract that especially affects uterine tubes. It causes scarring and fuses folds together to form blind ended pouches where zygotes get stuck.
What are the 3 portions of the uterus?
Fundus, body and cervix.
Where is the fundus of the uterus located?
Superior to the oviduct entrance.
Where is the body of the uterus located? Describe its lumen.
The broad portion receives oviducts and it contains a flat lumen.
What is the cervix of the uterus?
The neck portion that protrudes into the vagina.
Fill in the Blank!

_________ opens into the vagina at the external cervical os.
Endocervical canal.
What are the 3 layers of the uterus from outermost to innermost?
Perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium.
What tissue type does the perimetrium of the uterus consist of? Where is perimetrium not found?
It consists of the dense irregular CT. It is peritoneum on the fundus.
Which layer is the thickest and contains the smooth muscle?
The myometrium
What are the arrangement of the muscular layers of the uterus?
Inner and outer longitudinal, middle circular.
Describe the appearance of smooth muscle cells of the uterus.
Spindle shaped.
When do the contractions of the smooth muscle cells increase?
Intercourse or menstruation (cramps) or during pregnancy and at delivery.
What controls smooth muscle contraction during pregnancy and delivery?
Prostaglandins and oxytocin.
Describe the transition of the myometrium in the cervical region.
Muscle cells are replaced with bundles of collagen and elastic fibers which permits more stretch during delivery.
What does the endometrium consist of? (epthelium type)
Simple columnar epithelium and lamina propria CT.
What are the glands of the endometrium called? (2) What type of lining do they have? What type of glands are they? What is found between the glands?
Simple columnar epithelum extends into and lines simple tubular glands called uterine or endometrial glands. There is endometrial stroma between glands.
Which layer of the uterus provides a place for the implantation of the zygote?
The endometrium.
What 2 layers is the endometrium divided into? Which is innermsot?
Functionalis and basalis. functionalis covers basalis.
Which layer is sloughed off during menstruation? What are the 2 subdivisions of this layer?
The functionalis layer is sloughed off. It is divided into compacta and spongiosa.
Is the basalis layer sloughed off during menstruation? What is its purpose?
NOT sloughed off. Its epithelium and glands regenerate functionalis from this layer.
What are the 3 stages of the menstrual cycle?
Menstrual phase
Proliferative phase
Secretory phase
What happens during the menstrual phase? (in general)
Functionalis layer sloughs off.
What happens during the proliferative phase? (in general)
Build up of the thickness of the functionalis layer.
What happens during the secretory phase? (in general)
Uterine glands begin to actively secrete material to support the zygote.
What is the proliferative phase also called? Why?
It is called the folicular phase because the endometrium is responding to estrogen produced by growing folicles in the ovary.
What induces the structrual changes of the endometrium in the proliferative phase?
Estrogen.
Describe the changes in the functionalis layer of the endometrium during the proliferative phase. (6)
Increased thickness (DIAGNOSTIC)
Increased length of uterine glands
Increased amount of CT stroma
Uterine glands straight to slightly wavy (DIAGNOSTIC)
Simple columnar epithelium
And a narrow lumen (DIAGNOSTIC)
What is found between the glands near the base of the endometrium in the proliferative phase?
Coiled arteries.
What are the 2 parts of the functionalis layer of the endometrium?
Compacta layer and the spongiosa layer.
Describe the compacta layer of the functionalis in the proliferative phase.
Superficial
Not many glands
Mostly CT
Describe the Spongiosa layer of the functionalis in the proliferative phase.
Deepest and thickest layer of functionalis
Glandular in character
What is the secretory phase AKA? (2)
Luteal or progravid stage.
What hormone influences the secretory phase?
Progestrone.
What does the secretory phase start with?
Ovulation and the formation of corpus luteum.
What cells secrete the progesterone that the secretory phase endometrium responds to?
Granulosal luetal cells.
What is responsible for the structural changes in the secretory phase?
Progestrone.
What are the structural changes that occur in the secretory phase? (7)
Uterine glands become coiled (DIAGNOSTIC)
CT between glands reduced (DIAGNOSTIC)
Gland lumens become dilated with secretions (DIAGNOSTIC)
Edges of cells now ragged
Nuclei basally located
Coiled arteries not readily seen
Thickness of the functionalis decreases
What is the purpose of the secretions created by the endometrium in the secretory phase?
Glycogen rich to nourish the implanting zygote.
What composes menses?
Blood and tissue from the endometrium.
Describe the endometrium during the menstrual period (4)
Endometrium thin due to sloughing off of functionalis layer (DIAGNOSTIC)
Luminal surface is ragged (DIAGNOSTIC)
Stroma left is full of blood (DIAGNOSTIC)
Mostly basalis left
What is menses based on?
Blood supply to the endometrium and progesterone levels.
What supplies the uterus?
Uterine arteries.
Where are arcuate arteries located?
Middle of the myometrium.
Where do radial arteries run? What do they branch into?
Radial arteires run to the endometrium. They branch into straight and coiled arteries.
Give the blood supply from most external to internal of the uterus.
Uterine artery, Arcuate artery, radial artery, straight/coiled artery.
What do straight arteries supply?
Only the basalis layer of the endometrium.
What do coiled arteries supply?
Only the functionalis layer of the endometrium.
Which type of arteries have longitudinal SMC's?
Coiled arteries
Which type of arteries have progesterone receptors and are progesterone dependent?
Coiled arteries.
What hormone rises during the luteal stage and what secretes it?
Progesterone levels rise during the luteal stage, secreted by granulosal luteal cells.
What does progestrone inhibit and what secretes this?
Progesterone inhibits LH secretion from pituitary gland.
What happens to SMC's when they lack progestrone? What is the result of this?
They intermittantly contract (cramps) and cuts blood flow to the functionalis for a short time.
After SMC's cut off blood flow to the functionalis what happens next?
Intermittant ischemia breaks down blood vessel walls which leak into the stroma.
What happens when progestrone levels fall too low in the endometrium?
Coiled arteris stay shut and the ischemic functionalis begins to slough off.
What happens at the end of the menstrual cycle? What is the result of this?
Feedback mechanisms stimulate the release of FSH from the pituitary to start the next cycle of follicles to grow. Also more estrogen is secreted which stimulates the rebuilding of the endometrium (proliferative stage)
How is the epithelium of the uterus "resurfaced" after menstruation?
Via proliferation and migration of the epithelium from the uterine glands in the basalis.
Why doesn't the basalis layer slough?
It has blood supply from straight arteries which do not have progesterone dependent longitudinal smooth muscles.
What is endometritis?
Inflammation of the endometrium.
What is endometriosis?
Prescence of endometrial material inside pelvic cavity.
What causes endometriosis?
Regurgitation and metaplasia of the peritoneum. This is then transported by lymphatic vessels.
Why is endometriosis dangerous? What pathologies does it cause?
Endometriosis is dangerous because it responds to hormonal changes of the cycle. Hemorrhage of this tissue is extremely painful. It causes lesions and visceral orgnas become enmeshed in fibrosis and strangulated.
What is the cervix? (generally)
Narrow neck portion of the uterus.
What is the portion of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina?
Portio vaginalis.
What is the lumen that extends from the external cervical os to the internal cervical os?
Endocervical canal.
What differentiates the cervix from the uterus (3)?
Branched cervical glands
No coiled arteries in endometrium (does not slough off)
Myometrium consists mostly of dense irregular CT and elastic fibers
Describe the purpose of cervical glands. WHat do they do? What can they form?
They are mucous secreting. Progesterone will increase viscosity of mucous to form a plug. Glands will frequently become plugged to form Nabothian cysts.
What is the change in epithelium at the vaginal cervical epithelium? Where does this transition occur?
From simple columnar to stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. It is located just inside the external cervical os.
Why is the vaginal cervical junction clinically significant? (3)
Place of weakness of epithelium
Point of chronic infection
Most likely place for start of cervical cancer
What is the most common cancer in women? From what does it occur?
Cervical cancer. It is from stratified squamous epithelum.
Where are Pap smears taken from? WHat are Pap smears for?
They are at the vaginal-cervical junction. They can be used to monitor cells from here and the anterior fornix for cancerous cells.
What are the 3 layers of the vagina?
Mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
What is the epithelium of the vagina?
Stratified squamous non-keratinizing
What does the mucosa of the vagina produce?
Lots of glycogen stimulated by estrogen.
What do the naturally occuring bacteria in the vagina do?
Metabolize and produce lactic acid to keep pH low to protect from infections.
Describe the lamina propria of the vagina. (3)
Layer of CT
Highly vascular
No glands
What type of muscle is found in the vagina? What is their arrangement?
These are smooth muscle cells. They are predominantly longitudinal but intermixed with circularly oriented fibers and bundles.
What is the purpose/make up of the adventitia?
CT that hods the organs to surrounding structures.
What are the differences between the adventitia of the vagina and the esophagus (2)?
No gland in lamina propria and do not have LAYERED muscularis externa (DIAGNOSTIC).
Describe what makes up the mammary gland (gland type, secretion type etc.)
Modified apocrine sweat gland that is compound tubuloalveolar in structure. It is an exocrine gland so it has ducts.
What separates the lobes of the mammary gland?
CT and adipose tissue.
Where do the lobes radiate out from?
The nipple
What are the lobes of the mammary glands subdivided into?
Lobules.
WHat drains each lobe of the mammary glands?
A single lactiferous duct.
What is the lactiferous sinus? WHat is its purpose?
A dilation of a lactiferous duct behind the nipple for milk storage.
What are the physiological states of the mammary gland?
Inactive mammary gland and active mammary gland.
What does an inactive mammary gland consist of? (3) Does it produce milk?
NO Milk! Consists of primarily adipose tissue and small amounts of glandular tissue and ducts.
What influences a mammary gland to become fully functional?
Progesterone and estrogen
What changes occur in the mammary glands in response to hormones? (3)
Ducts branch and grow
Glandular units form alveoli
Alvioli produce clostum prior to birth
What lines alveoli of mammary glands? What surrounds them (2)? What do they replace?
Lined by simple cuboidal epithelum. THey are surrounded by a basement membrane and wrapped with myoepithelial cells (branching cells which surround the entire alveolus). Developing alveoli replace adipose tissue.
What is clostrum and when is its secreted?
It is a protein rich substace containing immunoglobulins. It is secreteted immediately after birth.
What stimulates cells to produce milk and secrete it into the alveolar lumen? What secretes this?
Prolactin hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.
What causes cells to contract and force milk out of alveoli? What secretes this?
Oxytocin secreted from pituitary gland causes these cells to contract. It forces milk out of alveoli.
What is the milk ejection reflex?
When milk is forced out of alveoli.
What are the two modes of secretion for milk? What part of milk are each of them responsible for?
Merocrine secretion is responsible for the protein portion of milk.
Apocrine secretion is responsible for the lipid portion of milk.
What differentiates the mammary gland form the thyroid gland?
Thyroid is endocrine and mammary is exocrine so mammargy glands have ducts and the thyroid does not.