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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the function of the ovarian follicles?
harbor and promote the development of the ova and produce estrogen
what is the mucosal lining of the uterus?
what is the primary site of fertilization?
what is the effect of estrogen on vaginal epithelium?
causes to epithelium to thicken and the cells to accumulate glycogen
what gender is the default phenotypic development?
what are the 2 functions of ovaries?
production of gametes (gametogenesis) and the production of steroids (steroidogenesis)
what are the two major groups of steroid hormones secreted by the ovaries?
estrogens and progesterones
what cells produce estrogen?
granulosa cells of the antral follicle, and theca lutein of the corpus luteum, and syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta
functions of estrogens:
promote growth and maturation of the internal and external sex organs and are responsible for the female 2° sexual characteristics that develop at puberty
functions of progesterone
prepares the internal sex organs for pregnancy by promoting secretory changes in the endometrium, and prepares the mamary gland for lactation by promoting lobular proliferation
what conveys blood vessels to the ovary?
germinal epithelium
low-cuboidal epithelium that is the surface epithelium of the ovaries; a modified peritoneum
what is directly beneath the germinal epithelium of the ovary?
tunica albuginea
what does the medulla of the ovary contain?
loose ct, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
what does the cortex of the ovary contain?
stroma (w/ fibroblast like stromal cells), ovarian follicles (containing oocytes)
what gives rise to 3/4 of all ovarian tumors?
germinal epithelium
where do primordial germ cells first appear?
in the endoderm of the yolk sac
in what stage are oocytes present at birth arrested in?
first meiotic division
what happens to the majority of primary oocytes?
gradually lost through atresia
what is the embryological origin of ovarian follicles?
oocyte- endoderm; follicular cells- mesoderm
what drives the functional development of the follicles?
hormones from the anterior pituitary
what are the four stages of the ovarian follicle?
primordial, primary, secondary (antral) and mature (Graafian)
what shape are the follicular cells in the primordial follicles?and how are they attached to eachother?
squamous; desmosomes
what is the stratum granulosum of the follicles
an avascular epithelium that is formed of the granulosa cells; forms with the multilaminar primary follicles;
zona pellucida
amorphous substance that appears during the primary follicular stage separating the oocyte from the surrounding follicular cells; composed of 3 glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 which are secreted by the oocyte
which glycoprotein of the zona pellucida is the 'sperm receptor'?
how are stromal cells in the follicle organized?
two layers surrounding the stratum granulosum: theca interna and theca externa
which stromal layer is highly vascularized in the follicle?
theca interna
what do theca interna cells produce?
androstenedione which is converted into estradiol in the granulosa cells
cytochrome P450 aromatase
enzyme in the granulosa cells which converts androstenedione to estradiol
what distinguishes a 2° follicle from a 1° follicle?
follicular fluid
what is proliferation of granulosa cells dependent on in the 1° follicle? In the 2°?
activin; FSH released by basophils of the anterior pituitary
what induces the granulosa to manufacture receptors for LH?
FSH causes formation of estradiol which enters the nucleus, and causes the formation of LH receptors
when does the antrum form?
2° follicular stage
cumulus oophorus
small group of granulosa cells that project out from the wall into the fluid filled antrum of the mature Graafian Follicle and surround the primary oocyte. Can become free from its base
corona radiata
single layer of granulosa cells that immediately surrounds the primary oocyte, part of cumulus oophorus
what is the germ layer of the ovary?
all mesoderm except oocyte is endoderm
what cells of the follicle have FSH receptors?
granulosa cells
Where are LH receptors in immature follicles? Mature?
theca interna cells; theca interna and granulosa cells
what initiates ovulation?
a surge of LH from the anterior pituitary
when does the primary oocyte complete the 1st meiotic?
just prior to ovulation
what does FSH do to granulosa cells?
cause division; form aromataser enzyme; stimulate gap jnction formation
what is the 2 cell theory of estrogen in the ovary?
LH binds to 1) theca interna cells hich forms androstenedione from cholestrol. Androgen the diffuses through basement membrane to 2)granulosa cells where it is converted to estradiol by aromatase
what does estradiol do? (in granulosa cells)
increases mitotic division; causes formation of LH receptors on granulosa cells
what increases sensitivity of the anterior pituitary to GnRH? And what does this cause?
estradiol; surge in LH prior to ovulation
what is the LH surge responsible for?
release of meiosis-inducing substance which continues the meiosis of the primary oocyte to the secondary oocyte; increased blood flow to ovaries causing edema
process of releasing 2° oocyte from the Graafian follicle
when does the cumulus of the follicle break up?
several hours prior to ovulation
what causes the loosening of the stratum granulosum and increase in the size of the follicle?
accumulation of follicular fluid in the antrum
thin, avascular region of the ovary where the mature follicle presses against the tunica albuginea which eventualy ruptures releasing the 2° oocyte
when is ovulation always?
14th day before beginning of menstruation
when can fertilization occur?
24-48 hours after ovulation
when does implantation normally occure?
6-7 days after ovulation
what does the corpus hemorrhagecum become?
corpus luteum
what happens to the follicle remnants after ovulation?
collapse, fold and a clot forms in the cavity (corpus hemorrhagicum)
corpus luteum
highly vascularized structure of granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells that acts as endocrine organ and is the remnant of a follicle
what organelles do granulosa lutein cells develop that granulosa cells don't have?
abundant R, increased mito, lipid droplets (become steroid producing cells
what does progesterone do?
prepares endometrium for implantation
what hormone does progesterone inhibit? Estrogen?
human horionic gonadotropin (hCG)
secreted by the placenta; maintains corpus luteum for 3 mos.
what is the main site of hormone production to maintain the first 2-3 mos of pregnancy? next mos?
corpus luteum; placenta
corpus albicans
fibrous ct that remains when corpus luteum of menstruation is invaded by fibroblasts and undergoes luteolysis
what happens to arteitic follicles
phagocytized by macrophages
where are cap junctions found in the follicle? Why are they necessary?
between oocyte and corona radiata (granulosa cells); needed for maturation of oocyte
what do hilus cells of the ovary secrete?
what cells in the ovary have similar configuaration as leydig cells of the testes?
hilus cells
thin mesentery derived from broad ligament that suspends the oviducts
4 regions of the oviduct
infundibulum, ampulla, intramural, and isthmus
what tissue lines the oviduct
simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium, some ciliated, some not
what do the peg cells supply nutrients and protection to in the oviduct?
sperm, ova, and embryo
where and when are there the most ciliated cells in the oviduct?
infundibular end; proliferative phase
where and when are there the most peg cells in the oviduct?
uterine end of the oviduct; luteal phase
how do longitudinal folds of the oviduct mucosa vary?
greatest height and complexity in the ampulla
what is the positive feedback of estrogen?
on the anterior pituitary causes sudden surge of LH
what causes the stigma to rupture?
collagen degradation, ischemia, and death of some overlying cells cause weakness of the outer follicular wall
process of remnants of the graafian follicle forming the corpus hemorrhagicum and then the corpus luteum
whats the predominant secretory product of the granulosa lutein cells?
what is the last thing to degenerate in follicular atresia?
zona pelucida
what is the effect of estrogen on the myometrium cells?
hypertrophy and mitosis
when are myometrium muscle cells the largest and most numerous?
what is unusual about the lamina propria of the endometrium?
amorphous matrix, very little fibers, the fibers are reticular, and is highly cellular
what do the glands of the endometrium secrete?
glycogen and mucus
what are the 2 layers of the endometrium?
stratum functionalis and stratum basalis
what type of arteries goes to each of the 2 layers of the endometrium?
spiral arteries to the stratum functionalis and straight arteries to the stratum basalis
what is the epithelium of the cervical canal?
simple columnar
what is the epithelial transition at the external os?
from simple columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium
what do the cervical glands secrete?
mucus and lysozyme
luteal hormone that induces lysis of collagen in cervical walls at the time of parturition to facilitate dilation
what is the cervical secretion during the proliferative phase? Why?
watery serous fluid; facilitates the entry of sperm to the uterus
what is the cervical secretion during the secretory phase and during pregnancy?
viscous mucus that forms plug; prevents the entry of sperm and microorganisms into the uterus
what regulates the changes in viscosity of the cervical gland secretions?
from what tissue does cervical carcinoma develp?
stratified squamous epithelium
what are the 4 phases of the menstrual cycle? And what days do they correspond to?
menstruation (days 1-4), proliferative (days 5-14), secretory (days 15-24), and premenstrual (days 25-28)
what is the shape of the glands in the proliferative phase?
simple, straight tubular
when does glycogen accumulate in the basal cytoplasm of the glandular epithelial cells of the endometrium?
proliferative phase
which phase of the menstrual cycle is the most variable?
proliferative phase
in which phase of the menstrual cycle is the stratum functionalis the thickest?
secretory phase
what phase of the ovary does the secretory phase of the uterus correspond to?
luteal phase of the ovary
why and when does glycogen shift to the apical cytoplasm of the glandular cells of the endometrium?
to nourish the conceptus before the formation of the placenta, and this occurs during the secretory phase
when are the glands tortuous and sacculated in the endometrium?
secretory phase
what does the maintenance of the endometrium depend on?
progesterone from the corpus luteum
what lines the intervillous space of the placenta?
what does the intervillous space contain?
maternal blood
placental barrier layers?
endothelial, fused basal lamina, synctiotrophoblast
what are the two main functions of the placenta?
nutrition and maintenance of the fetus; and synthesis and release of hormones
what is the only maternal antibody that crosses crosses the placental barrier to the fetus?
produced by both the ovary and placenta, induces the relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and softens the cervix to facilitate childbirth
hormone that regulates maternal nutrient storage to the nutrient requirements of the fetus; especially during last month of gestation
what is responsible for the low pH of the lumen of the vagina? And why is this pH necessary?
the vaginal bacterial flora metabolize the glycogen from the epithelial cells to produce lactic acid; restricts pathogenic invasion
what provides the primary lubrication in the vagina?
plasma derived from thin walled veins in the lamina propria combined with mucus secretions of the cervix
what initiates development of the lobules and terminal ductules of the mammary glands??
secretions of estrogen and progesterone from the ovary and prolactin from the anterior pituitary
peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that promotes synthesis of mammary gland secretions (milk)
first secretions of the mammary gland that occurs in late pregnancy and just after birth; is high-prtein and lipid-poor secretion that includes secretory IgA
how are milk proteins secreted from the glandular cells of the mammary glands?
merocrine secretion
what does the mechanical stimulation of the nipple produce?
afferent impulses to the hypothalams stimulate oxytocin release and prolactin release
hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes the contraction of myoepithelial cells, causing the release of milk from the gland
what inhibits the relese of LH from basophils?
What is the source of FSH?
basophils of the anterior pituitary
hich hormone is most likely responsible for the release of a haploid secondary oocyte?
which hormone stimulates the formation of progesterone receptors in the endometrium?
which hormones parallel the decline of the corpus luteum?
progesterone and estrogen
what is a difference between anchoring and free chorionic villi?
anchoring vili are anchored to the dicidua basalis