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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What embryologic cells make up the ovary?
Germ (endodermal) cells, migrate to urogenital ridge (mesodermal) to form Ovary
What embryologic feature makes up the tubes, uterus & upper vagina?
Paired Mullerian (paramesonephric) ducts fuse to form tubes, uterus, upper vagina
Epithelial surfaces & lining share what embryological origin?
All epithelial surfaces and linings share mesothelial origin, important in understanding pathological lesions
What do the Mullerian ducts become in the female?
Nothing, they normally regress in the female. However, they may persist as epithelial inclusions adjacent (tumors perhaps) to ovaries, tubes and uterus. In the cervix and vagina, they may become cysts (Gartner duct cysts).
What are Gartners cysts?
Remnants of the Wolffian duct.
How much does the nulliparous uterus weigh in a reproductive age woman?
The uterus weighs around 50 grams in the nulliparous reproductive age woman. They can weigh up to 70 grams following pregnancy or become half their weight following menopause.
Anatomically speaking, how does the uterus sit in the body?
The uterus is usually anteroflexed, a retroflexed uterus is uncommon.
How large is an ovary?
The ovary is about 4 x 3 x 2 CM! (Small!)
Where in relation to the ovaries, can you find the fallopian tubes?
The fallopian tubes are anterior to the ovary, although they can flop around.
What's a Hydatid?
A hydatid is a paratubual cyst, common (~50%) and found on the epithelial surface. It is usually benign.
What's the Pouch of Douglas?
The Pouch of Douglas is the "cul de sac" created by the reflection of the peritonium from the rectum over the pelvic floor. There may be many different pathological responses found in this area.
What are the regions of the uterus?
The regions of the uterus are: the cervix, the lower uterine segment and the corpus.
Describe the cervix.
The cervix has two segments: the vagianl portio aka ectocervix and the endocervix.
What cells can you see on the ectocervix?
Stratified nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium covers the ectocervix. It converges centrally at the external os.
What cells line the endocervix?
Columnar, mucus-secreting epithelium that dips down into underlying stroma producing crypts line the endocervix.
What is the "transformation zone" in the cervix? What is the significance of this area?
It is where the comlumnar epithelium is replaced by squamous epithelium. This is where precancerous lesions and squamous carcinomas develop.
In what stage of the female will you see the ectropion w/exposed columnar epithelium?
You will see it in the young adult.
Name some infections that may be common and cause significant discomfort, but no serious sequelae.
Candidiasis, trichomoniasis and Gardnerella infections.
WHat are some of the major causes of female infertility?
N. gonorrheae, Chlamydia.
What is implicated in spontaneous abortions?
Mycoplasma
What are involved in the pathogenesis of vulvar and cervical cancer?
Most important is HPV!
Where can you most commonly find HSV?
You can find HSV(-2), herpetic ulcers, in the vulva, vagina & cervix. However, note that sometimes these ulcers are present in the vagina & cervix, leaving it a much more difficult diagnosis for the practitioner to recognize.
How significant is HSV in doctor visits?
HSV is one of the major STDs, with an increase in frequency in teenagers and young women. About 1/3 of the infected patients have clincal symptoms.
What are the S & S of HSV?
3-7 days post contact, lesions appear, containing painful red papules in the vulva --> vesicles --> ulcers. There can be leukorrhea if the cervix or vagina is involved. Fever, malaise, tender inguinal lymph nodes. Because the ulcers contain virus particles, there is a high transmission rate (you can still transmit HSV even during the inactive state) during active infections. The lesion heals spontaneously after 1-3 weeks, but there is latent infection of regional nerve ganglia. Recurences are less painful.
Histologically - multinucleated cells with intra-nuclear, ground glass viral inclusions
What is the "worst case scenario" of HSV infection?
Transmission to neonate during birth, highest if mother is active w/primary infection.
Conjunctivitis, keratitis, vesicular rashes, jaundice, seizures & GI bleeds potential in infants (2-12 days after delivery)
50% are systemic, high mortality (up to 80%)
Tell me about Candida infections?
Common (~10% are carriers), can be thought of as endogenous also. DM, PO contraceptives & pregnancy aids development of infection. Small, white surface patches, accompanied by leukorrhea & pruritus leading to vulvovaginitis. Dx w/wet mounts. PSEUDOHYPHAE!
What about Trichomonas vaginalis?
Large, flagellated ovoid protozoan, seen in ~15% women in STD clinics. Purulent vaginal d/c, discomfort, STRAWBERRY CERVIX, cervicovaginitis.
Gardnerella...
GN, small bacillus...think of this when no other organisms can be found.
What's Molluscum contagiosum?
Found on the vulva, can be more common in warmer, tropical areas, moist skin is probably more susceptible, central indentation, multiple or singles.
Histologically, squamous epithelial w/viral inclusions, large eosinophilic inclusions
going to look different than HSV
What can cause vaginitis?
Candida, Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Gardnerella
What's the Pouch of Douglas?
The Pouch of Douglas is the "cul de sac" created by the reflection of the peritonium from the rectum over the pelvic floor. There may be many different pathological responses found in this area.
What are the regions of the uterus?
The regions of the uterus are: the cervix, the lower uterine segment and the corpus.
Describe the cervix.
The cervix has two segments: the vagianl portio aka ectocervix and the endocervix.
What cells can you see on the ectocervix?
Stratified nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium covers the ectocervix. It converges centrally at the external os.
What cells line the endocervix?
Columnar, mucus-secreting epithelium that dips down into underlying stroma producing crypts line the endocervix.
What is the "transformation zone" in the cervix? What is the significance of this area?
It is where the comlumnar epithelium is replaced by squamous epithelium. This is where precancerous lesions and squamous carcinomas develop.
In what stage of the female will you see the ectropion w/exposed columnar epithelium?
You will see it in the young adult.
Name some infections that may be common and cause significant discomfort, but no serious sequelae.
Candidiasis, trichomoniasis and Gardnerella infections.
WHat are some of the major causes of female infertility?
N. gonorrheae, Chlamydia.
What is implicated in spontaneous abortions?
Mycoplasma
What are involved in the pathogenesis of vulvar and cervical cancer?
Most important is HPV!
Where can you most commonly find HSV?
You can find HSV(-2), herpetic ulcers, in the vulva, vagina & cervix. However, note that sometimes these ulcers are present in the vagina & cervix, leaving it a much more difficult diagnosis for the practitioner to recognize.
How significant is HSV in doctor visits?
HSV is one of the major STDs, with an increase in frequency in teenagers and young women. About 1/3 of the infected patients have clincal symptoms.
What are the S & S of HSV?
3-7 days post contact, lesions appear, containing painful red papules in the vulva --> vesicles --> ulcers. There can be leukorrhea if the cervix or vagina is involved. Fever, malaise, tender inguinal lymph nodes. Because the ulcers contain virus particles, there is a high transmission rate (you can still transmit HSV even during the inactive state) during active infections. The lesion heals spontaneously after 1-3 weeks, but there is latent infection of regional nerve ganglia. Recurences are less painful.
Histologically - multinucleated cells with intra-nuclear, ground glass viral inclusions
What is the "worst case scenario" of HSV infection?
Transmission to neonate during birth, highest if mother is active w/primary infection.
Conjunctivitis, keratitis, vesicular rashes, jaundice, seizures & GI bleeds potential in infants (2-12 days after delivery)
50% are systemic, high mortality (up to 80%)
Tell me about Candida infections?
Common (~10% are carriers), can be thought of as endogenous also. DM, PO contraceptives & pregnancy aids development of infection. Small, white surface patches, accompanied by leukorrhea & pruritus leading to vulvovaginitis. Dx w/wet mounts. PSEUDOHYPHAE!
What about Trichomonas vaginalis?
Large, flagellated ovoid protozoan, seen in ~15% women in STD clinics. Purulent vaginal d/c, discomfort, STRAWBERRY CERVIX, cervicovaginitis.
Gardnerella...
GN, small bacillus...think of this when no other organisms can be found.
What's Molluscum contagiosum?
Found on the vulva, can be more common in warmer, tropical areas, moist skin is probably more susceptible, central indentation, multiple or singles.
Histologically, squamous epithelial w/viral inclusions, large eosinophilic inclusions
going to look different than HSV
What can cause vaginitis?
Candida, Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Gardnerella