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174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Site of egg production
Site of estrogen and progesterone production
Site of fertilization
Oviducts/fallopian tubes/uterine tubes
Site of egg/embryo transport toward uterus
oviducts/fallopian tubes/uterine tubes
Site of implantation and development of embryo/fetus
Tubular organ that receives sperm
External genitals
Produce milk
mammory glands
Anchors ovary medially to uterus
ovarian ligament
Anchors ovary laterally to pelvic wall
suspensory ligament
How long is ovarian cycle?
28 days
What stimulates ovarian follicles at beginning of cycle
FSH secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary
What hormone: develops and maintains female's reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics; stimulates breast deveopment, protein anabolism; and protects against atherosclerosis and osteoporosis
At what point do levels of FSH and LH sharply increase
Midway through cycle (day 14)
What do increases in FSH and LH trigger
Release of egg
What is the term for the release of secondary oocyte from a Graafian follicle
What does ruptured follicle develop into
Corpus luteum under influence of LH
What does corpus luteum secrete and what does this do
Estrogen and progesterone; causes endometrium to thicken
What causes onset of mentrual flow
Corpus luteum degenerates and levels of estrogens and progesterone drop
What sweeps egg toward uterus within oviducts
Peristalsis and cilia lining of epithelia
How long is oviduct
4 inches
Where does fertilization actually occur
Upper one-third portion of oviduct
Where does embryo implant itself
Endometrium of uterus
What vessel within the placenta supplies the fetus with nutrients
Umbilical vein
What vessel within the placenta rids the fetus of wastes
Umbilical arteries
What is the term for giving birth
Contraction of what layer of the uterus forces the fetus out through the cervix and vagina
What is the term for the first menstrual period
What is the term for the last menstrual period
What conditions may interrupt a menstrual period
illness, stress, starvation, pregnancy
What part is referred to as the birth canal
What is secreted by the vagina to kill bacteria and sometimes kill sperm
What partially covers orifice of vagina in virgins
What is the raised area of adipose tissue over symphysis pubis covered in pubic hair
mons pubis
What are two longitudinal folds that extend inferiorly from mons pubis and are the same as the scrotum in the male
Labia majora
What are two folds of skin medial to labia majora
Labia minora
What is the central area bounded by labia minora that includes the hymen, vaginal orifice, and urethral opening
What is the female erectile tissue and site of sexual arousal anterior to urethral opening (same as penis in males)
Mammory glands are known as modified ____ glands
What two kinds of tissue do mammory glands contain
adipose and glandular
Name some secondary sex characteristics
Growth of breasts, increased subcutaneous fat, widening and lightening of pelvis, growth of axillary and pubic hair
Activity of what glands lubricates vestibule and facilitates entry of penis into vagina during intercourse
vestibular glands
What is accompanied by muscle tension, increased pulse rate and blood pressure, and rhythmical contraction of uterus
Do females have a refractory period after orgasm?
Is orgasm necessary for conception
What must be done if hymen is tough and has no opening
must be opened surgically
About how many sperm actually reach the egg
one hundred
What are the names of the layers of follicular cells that surround the secondary oocyte
Zona pellucida and corona radiata
What triggers the second meiotic division of the egg
When the sperm enters the egg
What results from the nucleus of the sperm and the nucleus of the ovum fusing
a zygote
A zygote has 23 pairs of chromosomes which makes it a ___ cell.
When does fertilization usually take place
Within 24 hours of ovulation
When does the zygote begin to mitotically divide
24 hours after fertilization
3 days after fertilization, the embryo is a solid mass of undifferentiated cells known as what?
4 days after fertilization, the embryo is a hollow ball of cells known as a _____
When does the blastocyst embed itself in the endometrium of the uterus
7 days after fertilization
Within the blastocyst is an inner mass of cells, what does this become?
The main body of the embryo
What develops if 2 or more eggs are ovulated simultaneously and fertlized by separate sperm?
Fraternal twins
What develops if an embryo splits into 2 or more masses and which begin to develop separately
Identical twins
During which week do the embyronic cells begin to secrete HCG
Second week
What hormone maintains the corpus luteum? What produces this hormone
HCG produced by embryonic cells in the 2nd week and later by the placenta
During which week does the extra-embryonic membrane and primary germ layers develop?
Third week
At which point is the embryo known as an embryonic disc or gastrula?
Third week
What is an extra-embronic membrane that is a fluid filled sac surrounding the embryo to protect it from shock?
What is the outermost extra-embryonic membrane that fuses with the uterine tissue to form the placenta?
What is the site of nutrient and waste exchange between maternal and embryonic blood?
Placenta formed by the chorion
What is the extra-embronic membrane that forms part of the gut and produces the earliest blood cells?
Yolk sac
Name the 3 primary germ tissues.
Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm
What primary germ tissue gives rise to the nervous system and the skin
What primary germ tissue becomes the inner lining of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts
What primary germ tissue becomes muscles, skeleton, and circulatory systems?
During which weeks does the 4th extra-embryonic membrane and the circulatory and nervous system develop?
4th week
What extra-embryonic membrane develops in the umbilical cord region and gives rise to the umbilical cord and urinary bladder
When does the heart begin pumping blood?
3 1/2 weeks
During which week do the head, arms, and legs and chordate characteristics begin to appear?
5th week
Notochord, gill pouches, tail, and dorsal hollow nerve cord are ________ characteristics.
At what time during gestation are all organ systems developed?
6-8 weeks
At what point does an embryo look clearly human?
8 weeks
At what point to we begin calling an embryo a fetus?
8 weeks
At what point does the liver begin to form red blood cells, ossification (as hyaline) begins, muscle contractions occur, and the head is nearly as large as the body?
6-8 weeks
What is the length and weight of the fetus at 8 weeks?
1.2 inches; 0.03 ounces
At what point during gestation does the body begin to elongate, blood cell formation begins in the red bone marrow, and the notochord degenerates?
Third month
What is the length of the fetus at the end of the third month?
90 mm
At what point during gestation does the cerebellum become prominent, eyes begin to blink, sucking motions of lips occur, face looks human, body begins to outgrow head, and the sex may be determined?
Fourth month
If the chromosomes are XY what is the sex of the fetus? What hormone is produced
Male, testosterone
If the chromosomes are XX what is the sex of the fetus? What hormone is produced?
Female, estrogen
What is the length of the fetus at the end of the fourth month?
140 mm
At which point during gestation does the vernix caseosa and lanuga form and kicking movements may be felt?
Fifth month
What is the vernix caseosa?
White greasy substance that covers body of fetus
What is the lanugo?
Silk like hair that covers body of fetus
What is the length of the fetus at the end of the fifth month?
190 mm
During which period of gestation is there rapid weight gain, eyes are open, bone marrow becomes sole site of blood cell formation, and in males testes reach the scrotum?
Sixth and Seventh month
When is the earliest prematurely born babies may survive?
27-28 weeks
What is the length of the fetus at the end of the seventh month?
280 mm
What primarly happens developmentally with the fetus during the eighth and ninth months
Rapid growth
What is the length and weight of the fetus at the end of the ninth month?
350-400mm (14-16 inches);
6-10 pounds
what happens when it is time to give birth?
Cervix dilates, amnion ruptures, symphysis pubis relaxes, and uterine muscles contract
What is the term for a child that comes out bottom first?
Breech birth
What is the term for when the placenta is discharged by uterine contractions after the child is born?
Who is the Austrian monk who brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics?
Gregor Mendel
Who is the father of modern genetics?
Gregor Mendel
What was Mendel working with in the 1860s when he discovered the basic principles of heredity?
Garden pea plants
Which of Mendel's principles states that the 2 alleles (genes) for a characteristic are packaged into separate gametes?
Law of segregation
Which of Mendel's principles states that each pair of alleles segregates into gametes independent of other pairs of alleles?
Law of independent assortment
Mendel was credited with the ___ ____: parents pass on discrete heritable units (genes) that retain their separate identies in offspring
Gene idea
What is the branch of biology that studies genes and heredity?
What is the passing of traits from parents to offspring?
What is a segment of DNA molecules that has the instruction for synthesizing a specific protein?
Genes usually work in pairs. One gene or ____ occupies a certain location or _____ on a chromosome and the other allele of the pair is found on the other homologue at the same location.
Allele; locus
What is a DNA molecule with is associated proteins or histones?
What term refers to all of the genes of an organism?
The human genome consists of how many genes and how many chromosomes?
30,000 genes and 46 chromosomes
What is a photograph of all the chromosomes of a person's cell?
What is a non-sex chromosome?
How many autosomes are in a human cell
22 pairs
What is the term refering to the X and Y chromosomes?
Sex chromosomes
What are genes that are not expressed unless both genes of the pair are recessive?
Recessive Alleles
What are genes that mask or over-ride recessive genes
Dominant Alleles
What is the term for the gene types for a certain trait (for example bb for blue eyes)?
What is the term for both genes or alleles of a pair are identical?
Homozygous genotype
What is the term for one gene or allele is dominant and the other is recessive in a pair?
Heterozygous genotype
What is the term for the actual physical trait caused by the genes?
What is the term for when two genes of a pair are both expressed equally?
What is the term for when one gene is partly dominant over another gene giving a blending effect?
Incomplete dominance
What is the term for when more than two genes govern a trait?
Multiple alleles
What are genes found on sex chromosomes called?
sex-linked genes
What is a cross in which both parents have the same heterozygous trait?
Monohybrid cross
What is the phenotypic ratio for a monohybrid cross?
What is a cross involving two heterozygous traits?
Dihybrid cross
What is the phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross?
What phenotypes and genotypes result from a cross between a tall pea plant (TT) and a heterozygous tall pea plant (Tt)?
Phenotypes: all tall
Genotypes: TT, TT, Tt, Tt
What phenotypes and genotypes result from a cross between heterozygous tall plant and homozygous short plant?
Tt x tt
Phenotypes: 2 tall, 2 short
Genotypes: Tt, Tt, tt, tt
What genotypes and phenotypes result from a father with heterozygous widow's peak and a mother with heterozygous widow's peak?
Ww x Ww
Phenotypes:3 widows peak, 1 continuous hair line
Genotype: 1WW, 2 Ww, 1ww
Cross a father with Widow's peak (Ww) and short fingers (Ss) with a mother with widow's pwak (Ww)and short fingers (Ss).
Results: WWSS, WWSs, WwSS, WwSs, WWSs, WWss, WwSs, Wwss, WwSS, WwSs, wwSs, wwSs, WwSs, Wwss, wwSs, wwss
Phenotypic ratio: 9:3:3:1
Cross a father with the sex-linked trait color blindness with a mother who is a carrier for color blindness.
X(c)Y x X(C)X(c)
2 boys, one color blind, one normal
2 girls, one color blind, one normal
If you cross a red snapdragon with a white snapdragon what will the offspring look like?
Snapdragons demonstrate a blending effect with dominance known as ______
incomplete dominance
Give an example of a trait governed by multiple alleles.
Blood type
Which blood type is recessive?
Type O
Which blood type exhibits codominance, in which two alleles are equally dominant?
Type AB
What is a disease in which people have abnormal shaped hemoglobin and sickle-shaped blood cells that do not transport blood well and tend to clump and clog vessels?
Sickle-cell anemia
Is sickle-cell anemia a dominant or recessive trait?
H(N)= normal
H(S)= sickle-cell (Recessive trait)
One out of every ___ African Americans has sickle-cell anemia. One out of every __ is a heterozygote or carrier for sickle cell anemia
400, 10
People who are carriers for sickle cell anemia are resistant to what disease?
Is cystic fibrosis a recessive or dominant trait?
C= normal
c= cystic fibrosis (recessive)
What is the most common lethal disease in the US?
Cystic fibrosis
What is the life expectancy for someone with cystic fibrosis?
What is a disease in which excessive mucous secretions are produced and the infected are prone to getting pneumonia and other infections?
Cystic fibrosis
Is Huntington's Disease a recessive or dominant trait?
H= Huntington's disease
h= normal (recessive)
On which chromosome is the Huntington's disease gene located?
Chromosome number 4
What is a rare degenerative disease of the nervous system that strikes in a person's 40s?
Huntington's disease
Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the Huntington's disease gene from human population?
Because it strikes late in life after the usual reproductive years and all genetic material has been passed on
Why is it not a good idea for close relatives to marry and have children?
Individuals who are closely related are more likely to have the same alleles for genetic disorders
What is the term for abnormal chromosomal number
What causes chromosomal abnormalities, extra chromosomes, or chromosome deficiencies?
Nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis
What happens to most embyros with chromosomal abnormalities?
They spontaneously abort
What autosomal disease is marked by trisomy 21?
Down syndrome
How many births have down syndrome?
1 in 800
What disease is characterized by a wide, round face, narrow and slanting eyes, mental retardation, and enlarged tongue?
Down syndrome
What autosomal disease is marked by trisomy 18?
Edward syndrome
How many births have Edward syndrome
l in 6000
What is the disease in which there are heart and nervous system defects and life expectancy is less than one year?
Edward syndrome
What disease is marked by XYY?
Jacob Syndrome
What disease affects males and gives them characteristics of acne, tall, and barely normal intelligence?
Jacob syndrome
How many births have Jacob Syndrome?
1 in 1000
What disease is marked by XO?
Turner Syndrome
What disease affects females and gives them characteristics like a broad chest, no breast development, infertility, small and nonfunctional female reproductive organs, and normal intelligence?
Turner syndrome
How many births are affected by Turner syndrome?
1 in 6000
What disease is marked by XXY?
Klinefelter syndrome
What disease affects males and gives them characteristics of underdeveloped testes and prostate gland, some breast development, very long arms and legs, slow learning ability, and sterility?
Klinefelter syndrome
How many births are affected by Klinefelter syndrome?
1 in 1500
What condition is marked by XXX?
What condition affects females, has no apparent physical abnormalities, and gives them an extra X chromosome?
How many births are affected by Triplo-X?
1 in 1500