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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In infants, oral cavity and pharynx are __ and -_
shorter and narrower
Fat pads, closing the sulci, are often not present in premature babies -- T or F?
In infants, epiglottis is __, arytenoids are __, and pyriform sinuses are __ and __
higher, larger, smaller and more elevated
in infants there is no dissociation btw tongue and jaw mvt -- T or F?
Children are obligatory oral breathers -- T or F?
F -- nasal breathers
In infants, laryngeal entrance sits__
just below oral cavity
Laryngeal position in infants is at __, and in adults it is at __
C2, C5-C7
Suckling is acquired around the __ and __ trimesters of pregnancy, and it truly beings around __ to __th week.
2 and 3rd, 18 to 24
Suckling is characterized by __, with __
backward and forward movement of the tongue, with backward movement more pronounced
Sucking developes at about __
6 months of age
Tongue raised and lowered with activity of __
intrinsic lingual muscles
Suckling is characterized by __ and __ movement, while sucking has __ and __ movement
forward-backward, up-down
Compare and contrast sucking and suckling
Suckling: tongue protrusion only until lip; forward-backward tongue movement, normal in early infancy. Sucking: tongue protrusion: further out than in suckling; up-down tongue movement; normal in later stages of life
Suck-swallow ratio is __ in infants
Mastication coordination is fully mature btw __ and __ of age
3 and 6
Transitional feeding period begins btw __ and __
4 and 6 months
Pharyngeal swallow can be observed in fetuses at __
12.5 weeks gestation
Pharyngeal response mechanism in infants same as in adults -- T or F?
Lower UES is less developed in infants, so they have higher risk of reflux -- T or F?
Kids start teething when?
Around 7-9 months
Jaw movements separate from tongue movements when?
Around 7-9 months
More than __ tongue pumps before swallow are considered abnormal
Abnormal TPS in infants is diagnosed when ___
bolus remains in valleculae and there is more than 1 sec. delay btw last tongue pump and TPS
prematurity is __ or more GA; extremely pr. is __ to __ gA
28; 23-24
Pulmonary maturity is at __ GA
Birth before pulmonary maturity can lead to __
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
RDS presents as __, __, and __
reduced pulmonary bloodflow, hypoxia, hypoventilation
This is treated by __, __ or __
mechanical ventilation, temp. control, oxygen therapy
Preterm infants exhibit
extensor patterns, poorer stability and coordination
Other signs preterm infants may exhibit include
oromotor weakness, neurological immaturity, inadequate hunger signals, incomplete oral-motor reflexes, inefficient movement patterns
States of alertness in infants include (5)
deep sleep, light sleep, drowsiness, quiet alert, active alert crying
Normal infant heart rate is __ to __
120 to 140 bpm
Bradycardia is
drop in heart rate, sustained for 10 secs, to less than 90
Tachypnea is
increase in respiratory rate above 60
Desaturation is
decrease in blood oxygen level below 90&
Normal infant respiratory rate is
30 to 60 breaths per minute
Optimal feeding posture for infants is
-neutral head position (btw flexion and extension)
-trunk and neck elongation
-hips, knees, ankles at 90 degrees
-symmetrical stable positioning of feet
Respiration-swallow coordination is unstable until __
3 months of age
Saliva swallow rate should be no less than __
1/5 minutes
Desensitization hierarchy for infants goes as follows:
Tolerate, interact, smell, touch, taste, eat
Down syndrome is characterized by __ including 4 things and __
oromotor problems (reduced tongue coordination, lateralization, hypotonicity, small oral cavity), oral hypersensitivity
Down syndrome is also characterized by
delayed TPS, reduced tongue base action, reduced laryngeal elevation, frequently silent aspiration, and GERD