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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the power of the federal government today is...
vastly more powerful
Under a unitary system of government, the central (national) government can...
alter or eliminate lower levels of government. This is not true of a federal system
In the United States, the interstate highway system and services to the unemployed are examples of governmental services seen as _________ __________ which are regulated by the federal government
state functions
Under federalism, the costs of political participation tend ti be _________, which is certainly one factor in explaining the...
lower

increase in political activism at the local level.
Which amendment was meant to assure the states of their powers?
10th

This assurance was not in the original document becayse it was assumed to be obvious.
When the ____________ was written, no __________ existed as to what type of interstate commerce would be regulated.
Constitution

consensus
Who was the most consistent supporter of a strong federal government?
Alexander Hamilton
Who was more in favor of decentralizing both policial and economic power?
Thomas Jefferson
One of the issues ultimately settled by the Civil War is the _________________________ __________________________, and that source is _____ _________.
source of the sovereignty of the national government

the people
Who was the first Chief Justice whose decisions greatly increased the power of the national government?
John Marshall
McCulloch v Maryland is noteworthy for three reasons:
a) it cemented the concept of implied powers
b)it denied to the states any taxing power over federal property
c)it established national supremacy over the states
Who advanced the idea of states rights by arguing the concept of nullification?
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
the concept of Nullification
states had the right to nullify federal laws within their boundaries if they thoguht the laws to be unconstitutional
From which debate did the doctrine of dual federalism come from?
Debate over the subject of commerce
What is dual federalism?
a concept which in essence created two distinct, sovereign, spheres
The idea of interstate commerce includes..
almost any kind of economic activity
Initiative
device by which legislation can originate with the people, and be placed on the ballot for voter approval
Referendum
device by which voters have the final say on legislation which originated with the lawmaking body
Recall
device by which exists in about one-third of the states, which allows the voters to remove an elected offical
Which case is an example of the national government deciding it was better to cede to the states a power that legally was held at the national level
The Tidelands Oil Reserves Case
Wilson claims that the grant-in-aid system grew rapidly becuase it helped to...
resolve the problem of how to get federal money into state hands without violating the Constitution
Wilson cites three ways why grant-in-aid systems grew
a) it made sense for the states to use federal money rather than their own taxes
b)the federal government did have the money to spend
c)the federal government always has the option to print money if need be. the states can't
Federal money became attractive for three reasons
a)at one time the federal government actually had budget surpluses
b)to the states it seemed like "free money"
c)the federal income tax was seen as a huge generator of public funds
What were the first form of grant-in-aid to the states
Land grants
In the 1960s and 1970s, the allocation of federal grants was dominated by...?
the perception of national needs on the part of federal officals
In accepting all this federal money, state governors were forgetting an old axim:
there's no such thing as a free lunch
Between 1960 and 1955, federal grants for transportation, as a proportion of all federal grants...
deceased more than any other grant category
intergovernmental lobby
a reference to state and local officals attempting to lobby the national government
categorical grant
a transfer of federal funds to states which are designed for a specific purpose
block grant
reference to a group of categorical or project grants
Block grants were designed to resolve the problem of..?
adapting categorical grants to local needs
Federal grants over which local officals have wide discretion are called..?
revenue sharing funds
Community Development Block Grants, LEAA, and CETA, were categorical grant programs which
were aimed specifically at cities
According to Wilson, revenue-sharing and block grants experienced only marginal success because
of the strings which the federal government began attaching to them
When money in the form of categorical grants is involved,
political manuvering and lobbying by local officals will be the most intensive
General revenue-sharing funds are available to
all communities regardless of per capita income level
Categorical grants are especially crucial to
those agencies which rely on them for their funding
Block grants which have the best prospects for surviving budgetary cutbacks are those in which
large chunks of money are concentrated in just a few areas
A federal mandate is
a demand by the federal government that a state or locality take certain steps regardless of who funds it
unfunded mandates
is a reference to federal demands that have no accompanying federal funds. funding is essentially dumped into the laps of the states
a mandate is not the same thing as a
condition-of-aid
in 1995, a law passes requiring the CBO to
idenitify any bill, amendment, or conference report that would impose any new mandate of more than $50 million on any state or local governing body