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136 Cards in this Set

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Enuma Elish
Mesopotamia, Creation Story, Tells of the Creation of the World and the Gods and Marduk’s rise to Power as a Result of slaying Tiamat, Man is the Servant of the Gods in this Depiction of Creation
Erasures of Monuments
Egypt, the Scratching Out or Eradication of Certain Individuals from Monuments, Akhenaten was erased from many monuments after the end of his reign when he was called the heretic-king, Hatshepsut was erased after her death from monuments, as were many other queens who ruled as king
Forced Deportation
Forced Deportation
Mesopotamia, used to disperse and disorient possible dissenters when conquering, also used to develop certain areas, Assyrians and Babylonians practiced (Assyrian relocation of Samaritans, Babylonian relocation of Judeans), policy abandoned under Persian Empire
Frame Story
Egypt, story within a story, example is King Khufu and the Magicians, often includes advice
Ka
One of the 3 parts of the soul; inherited from the father; unchanging and eternal; twin like; life force or spiritual energy; needs food to survive; pictures of food will sustain a person in the afterlife; mummified animals were also buried with a person for this reason; “Call upon the living”  asked people to come visit tomb
Kerma Beaker
Looks like Egyptian pre-dynasty pottery but has a silver line across the middle; highly polished surface; show spread of kerma-derivative culture.
Khufu
4th Dynasty pharaoh; Snefru’s son; seen as an evil man and wasn’t popular with the people, maybe because he had to draft people to build his pyramid at Giza; he built the largest of the 3 pyramids at Giza and was the first to build there
Lamentations
A style of Egyptian writing, along with wisdom literature; talking about the bad times, many pieces written during the 1st Intermediate Period
Lebensmüde/The Man Who was Weary of Life
Debate between a man and his ba about suicide; late Middle Kingdom; psychological document; lamentation; about society and traditions of society
Libyans
3rd Intermediate Period; moved into Egypt, didn’t conquer them; Tanis is an important capitol, Lybian names become more popular; Pseusennes I had longest reign, 48 years
Ma‘at
Both the goddess and the idea of order; constantly trying to balance out nonexistence
Meggido/Armageddon
Thutmose III; New Kingdom; to make Egypt more of a cosmopolitan nation he takes over the city of Meggido in Eastern Levant; does so in an unexpected way and that is why it is so famous; parallels Biblical texts and is thus often referred to as Armageddon
Mentuhotep the Great
11th Dynasty; started out as king of Thebes but gets control over all of Egypt and thus unites Egypt again to end the 1st Intermediate Period; ruled from Thebes, which isn’t strategically smart because of its location
Mittani
Near East state; Hatti conquers it during the New Kingdom in Egypt; it tried to become a strong power and attempted to be in diplomatic contact with Egypt, but Hatti overpowered it
Ka
One of the 3 parts of the soul; inherited from the father; unchanging and eternal; twin like; life force or spiritual energy; needs food to survive; pictures of food will sustain a person in the afterlife; mummified animals were also buried with a person for this reason; “Call upon the living”  asked people to come visit tomb
Karnak
uring the New Kingdom it was an important religious and burial place; many temples built there; Center of cult of Re; Major temple to Re at Karnak; the temples of Karnak are a good example of how city temples devoted to gods grew with each new king whereas mortuary temples tended to stay unchanged (I’m not sure about this, but I think it’s right)
Kerma
2nd Intermediate Period; Nubian capitol in the south (in Upper Nubia); has mortuary temples that are unegyptian-like; circular tombs filled with grave goods; adopted gods from Egypt; many human sacrifices in Kerma burials; Located 10 miles south of 3rd Cataract on east bank of Nile
Kerma Beaker
Looks like Egyptian pre-dynasty pottery but has a silver line across the middle; highly polished surface; show spread of kerma-derivative culture.
Khufu
4th Dynasty pharaoh; Snefru’s son; seen as an evil man and wasn’t popular with the people, maybe because he had to draft people to build his pyramid at Giza; he built the largest of the 3 pyramids at Giza and was the first to build there
Khufu & the Magicians/ Papyrus Westcar
Also Cheops and the Magicians; inscribed in the Hyksos period before 18th Dynasty but composition seems to be from the 12th Dynasty; Old Kingdom setting; about the prophecy of the birth of 3 kings who will find the 5th Dynasty – Khufu’s sons amuse him with tales of magic - possible propaganda to legitimize early 5th Dynasty kings it’s a miraculous royal birth; told to Khufu
Lamentations
A style of Egyptian writing, along with wisdom literature; talking about the bad times, many pieces written during the 1st Intermediate Period
Lebensmüde/The Man Who was Weary of Life
Debate between a man and his ba about suicide; late Middle Kingdom; psychological document; lamentation; about society and traditions of society
Libyans
3rd Intermediate Period; moved into Egypt, didn’t conquer them; Tanis is an important capitol, Lybian names become more popular; Pseusennes I had longest reign, 48 years
Ma'at
Both the goddess and the idea of order; constantly trying to balance out nonexistence
Marduk
Babylonian god; possibly god of light?; son of Ea (wisdom god) and An; Ea passed his traits to Marduk; important in creation story; becomes king of gods; slays Tiamat
Mari Letters
Mari is in Syria; royal letters; informs us about politics and military affairs throughout Near East; found in diplomatic archives; the style of the letters was Babylonian (written in cuneiform) even through the Mari people spoke a west Semitic language
Medinet Habu
Location of one of the best preserved temples of the New Kingdom; mortuary temple built by Rameses III; closely modeled the Ramesseum built by Rameses II
Meggido/Armageddon
Thutmose III; New Kingdom; to make Egypt more of a cosmopolitan nation he takes over the city of Meggido in Eastern Levant; does so in an unexpected way and that is why it is so famous; parallels Biblical texts and is thus often referred to as Armageddon
Mentuhotep the Great
11th Dynasty; started out as king of Thebes but gets control over all of Egypt and thus unites Egypt again to end the 1st Intermediate Period; ruled from Thebes, which isn’t strategically smart because of its location
Mittani
Near East state; Hatti conquers it during the New Kingdom in Egypt; it tried to become a strong power and attempted to be in diplomatic contact with Egypt, but Hatti overpowered it
Napata/Napatan Dynasty
25th Dynasty; Nubian; founded by Alara; founded in 785 BC; revival of traditional Egyptian culture
Nectanebo II
30th Dynasty; last native ruler of Egypt; closely connected to Horus; has a cult following; Nectanebo-the-Falcon
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Important because of their brutal military strength; great art/reliefs; displaced people if they through they would rebel; were very superstitious as a people; 3rd Intermediate Period; very oppressive IMPORTANT KINGS:
Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Assubanipal
Nefertiti
Extremely powerful; wife of Akhenaten, beautiful, ruled jointly with her husband as co-regent; shares complementary role in Aten religion with him; closely connected to the goddess Isis; depicted with dark skin (fertility) and same size as Akhenaten; there is a theory that she may have ruled as a pharaoh after Akhenaten’s death under the name Smenkaure, but it cannot be comfirmed;
Enuma Elish
Extremely powerful; wife of Akhenaten, beautiful, ruled jointly with her husband as co-regent; shares complementary role in Aten religion with him; closely connected to the goddess Isis; depicted with dark skin (fertility) and same size as Akhenaten; there is a theory that she may have ruled as a pharaoh after Akhenaten’s death under the name Smenkaure, but it cannot be comfirmed;
Faiyum
A fertile oasis to the West of the Nile; greek ‘military base’ where soldiers were given land in exchange for being available to fight; wax portraits on mummies found there
First Intermediate Period
Egypt, Asiatic invasions, power divided up between nomes of Egypt, nomarchs, warring nomes, provincial art styles became prevalent (oddly proportioned, inferior style), ended by Mentuhotep the Great
Gilgamesh
Mesopotamia, king of Babylonia in Epic of Gilgamesh, begins good but becomes oppressive, rival is Enkidu but they become friends after Gilgamesh defeats him in a fight, kills Humbaba the forest god with Enkidu, They kill the bull of Heaven which was sent to destroy their city because Gilgamesh wouldn’t marry the goddess of love Ishtar, Enkidu is sentenced to death by gods, fears death after seeing Enkidu die, searches for immortality, finds out death is inevitable and then ruins his 2nd chance at immortality, story has parallels to flood stories of other cultures
Giza
Near Memphis, Khufu, Khafre, and Menkare of the 4th Dynasty built pyramids here, Khufu’s was largest of all pyramids, continued to build possibly to draw from power of past leader (2nd sons need lineage to reinforce power in Egypt), site of one of Seven Wonders of the World; becomes a royal cemetery; Sphinx built by Hatshepsut
God’s wife of Amun
Egypt, Instituted by Ahmes Nefertari (wife of Ahmose) in the Eighteenth Dynasty, daughters of pharaohs would rule from Thebes, control factor for king, generally tied genealogically (daughter of pharaoh adopted by God’s Wife), celibate in later periods, ended by Assyrian conquest
Hammurabi
Ruler of Babylonia, wrote Hammurabi’s Code (a collection of previous rulings, not a guideline made by Hammurabi)
Hathor
Egypt, goddess of love, used in depictions of many powerful queens, often had signature curls at the end of hair (easily identified)
Hatshepsut
Egypt, Pharaoh of 18th Dynasty, Stepmother and regent of Thutmose III, crowned herself king to keep thrown, ruled until Thutmose’s 27th year, built a large temple at Karnak, made trading expedition to Punt, erased from monuments after death, part of dynasty of powerful women
Hatti
Located in Anatolia, one of large empires during the Amarna period, referenced in the Amarna Letters, disintegrates after the Amarna Period, defeats Mittani
Heb-sed/Jubilee
Egypt, traditionally occurred every 30 years, “recrowning of king”, king died and resurrected as the king again, Jubilee buildings found in pyramid complexes
Heliopolis
Egypt, Temple of Amun, cult of Amun took control of Northern Egypt in 23rd Dynasty from Heliopolis
Horus
Egypt, son of Isis and Osiris, embodiment of king, represented by falcon, “Son of Horus” name, counterpart is Seth who is also represented by falcon
Hyksos
Egypt, Semetic-speaking people, living north of Egypt, migrate in during Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period, take over through subversion of existing Egyptian government; Hyksos capital at Avaris
Hyksos Period/2nd Intermediate Period
Egypt, Hyksos rule Egypt, pottery (Tell-el-Yahudiya Jugglet), Hyksos allied with Nubians at Kerma, Hyksos burned Memphis, Hyksos names in king list
Hypostyle Hall
Egypt, “pronaeos,” large columns representing reeds (shallow marsh), one of the portions of Egyptian temple surrounding the Holy of Holies, just outside Barque Shrine, could contain clerestory windows for a frontal path of light in center of hall
Isis
Egypt, wife of Osiris, revived him after he is killed by Set, from death comes life, conceives Horus, shown with traditional platform on head; queen of the dead; sister of Osiris; related to fertility; dark skin
Ishtar Gate
Mesopotamia, processional way, one of gates to city of Babylon, devoted to goddess of love Ishtar
Abu Simbel
Egypt. An archaeological site in Southern Egypt consisting of two rock temples built by Ramesses II (19th dynasty) as monuments to him and his wife Nefertari. Also, commemorated there is his victory at the Battle of Kadesh against the Hittite people, possibly to intimidate his Nubian neighbors, located at Aswan at 2nd Cataract
Abydos
Egypt. One of the most ancient Egyptian cities, site of an ancient necropolis and many temples. It is thought to have been founded during the prehistoric age and was inhabited all the way until the 26th dynasty. In the 12th dynasty a gigantic tomb was constructed by Senusret III. Seti I, in the 19th dynasty, founded a great new temple to the south of the town in honour of the ancestral kings of the early dynasties; this was finished by Ramesses II, who also built a lesser temple of his own; center of cult of Osiris; 1st Dynasty kings’ tombs excavated and rebuilt for Osiris during Middle Kingdom; Djer’s tomb was converted to cenotaph for Osiris
Ahmost
Egypt, founder of the 18th dynasty, the first dynasty of the New Kingdom. He was the brother of the last king of the 17th dynasty. His father died battling the Hyksos and so did his brother and then he took the throne. During his reign he expelled the Hyksos from the Delta and established Theban rule over all of Egypt.
Akh
Egypt. Essentially, it is the spirit of the dead individual, closely related to the idea of a “ghost.” (Other two parts of the “Egyptian soul” are Kah and Ba.)
Akhenaten
Egypt – 18th dynasty, previously known as Amenhotep IV. He spent his childhood as a priest in Heliopolis and apparently didn’t approve of traditional Egyptian religion. He began a new “monotheistic” religion focusing on the worship of Aten, the sun disc and also changed the capital of Egypt Akhentaton/Amarna (Horizon of Aten).
Akkad
Early city-state in Mesopotamia; language Akkadian written in cuneiform by many cultures other than Akkadians; city on west bank of Euphrates; peaked between 24th and 22nd centuries bc; Sargon, Naram-Sin
Alexander III of Macedon/The Great
Conquered Egypt in 332 bc. He was welcomed into Egypt after the unpleasant second Persian conquest. He was told by an oracle that he was the son of Amun and was then crowned King. He is often depicted with the horn of Amun on his coins.
Alexandria
Egypt. A natural port built in classical style and a very cosmopolitan city. Where eastern and western thought met and had one of the seven wonders of the ancient world: The lighthouse. Its library is famous as well and was viewed as a very impressive repository of knowledge.
Amarna
Egypt, the modern name for Akhentaten, the capital founded by Akhenaton. It was abandoned shortly after his death. The boundaries of the city are marked by Akhenaton’s boundry stelae. The city includes the tomb of Akhenaton, Tombs of nobels and Workman villages. Its construction began in year 4 of his reign and is thought to be finished in year 9
Amarna Letters
Egypt/Mesopotamia. Found in Amarna (Akhentaten), these diplomatic letters were written in Akkadian cuneiform. A cash of 382 were found, dating to the reigns of Amenhotep III and IV (Akhenaton) communicating with various Mesopotamian rulers of Assyria, Babylonia, Mittanni and Hatti. They address each other as equals and dealt with the exchanged of gifts and treatment of messengers.
Amarna Art
Egypt, end of 18th dynasty. A big change from traditional Egyptian artistic representation. Amarna art depicted people as more “realistic” paying particular attention to hands and feet, representing them in detail. Amarna art often showed the royal family embracing children, a big change in decorum from traditional representations; snapshot style captures moments; weird body shapes and faces; started by Akhenaten (realistic depiction?) and copied by rest of country
Amduat
An important Ancient Egyptian mortuary text of the New Kingdom. It tells the story of Re, the sun God, traveling through the underworld. The text is reserved from royal and noble use only. It does not appear on non-royal tombs.
Amenemhat I
Egypt, first king of 12th dynasty. He was not of royal blood. Leader of the Wadi Hammamat expedition. Unlike his predecessors he did not rule from Thebes but rather from Memphis. He was assassinated by his bodyguard
Amun-Re
Amun began as the deification of air, a member of the Ogdoad. Later, he was viewed as the creator, preceding the Ogdoad, but also being a part of it, an excellent example of “nesting.” As his cult grew bigger, he began to be associated with another major god, the sun god Re. They merged and he was considered the father of the Ennead.
Apis Bull
A black bull with a white diamond on its head and an eagle shape on its back or double the number of hairs on its tail or a scarab mark under its tongue; considered the Ba of Ptah; 7 day festival when it is born; Only one at a time; buried at Serapeum at Saqqara
Serapis
Egypt, a bull deity worshipped in the Memphis region. It was very popular during the New Kingdom and the Ptolemaic period. Greeks thought he was an incarnation of Osiris.
Aramaean/Aramaic
A group of Semitic languages with a 3,000 year history. Original language in the Books of Ezra and Daniel in the Bible; origins of Aramaeans uncertain; first written in modified Phoenician alphabet; competed with Akkadian in Assyrian empire; 500 bc becomes the semi-official language of Assyrian empire
Ashurbanipal/Assurbanipal
Mesopotamia, last king of ancient Assyria. He is thought to have been literate. He assembled the first systematically collecter library in Nineveh. He tried to gather there all cuneiform literature available.
Asiatics
Term for Syrian/Palestinian people in Ancient Egyptian culture; invaded Egypt during 1st intermediate period; “Asiatics” represent foreigners who are often treated as inhuman in early Egyptian texts. Asiatics also depicted differently. Demonstrated an acute sense of superiority on the part of the Egyptians.
Asshrian Empire
Ashurnasirpal II (883 BC–859 BC), embarked on a vast program of merciless expansion. Ashurnasirpal's son, Shalmaneser III had a long reign of 34 years. Babylonia reduced to vassalage. The country's international allies had fallen firmly into the sphere of influence of Assyria and from about 700 BC the question became when, not if, there would be war between the two states. Egypt was ruled by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. Psamtik I was the first to be recognized by them and increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II scarcely a year in 526 BC before he had to face the might of Persia. (Wikipedia)
Aten
Sun disc, creator of the universe in Egyptian mythology (according to Akhenaton). Worship began in the 18th dynasty and ended with the death of Akhenaton; possibly derived from an earlier court god?
Serapeum
AKA Sakkara. Location in Egypt known for its various tombs,
most obviously the Step Pyramid. (A map is available on page 339 of
Kemp.) King lists discovered there in tomb of Tenroy. Other burials
there include the pyramids of King Ibi, King Khendjer, King Pepi II, as
well as the tombs of Horemheb, Kagemni, Mereruka, and King Shepseskaf.
Sety I
AKA Seti I, Egyptian pharaoh, 19th Dynasty. Father of Ramesses
II. Seen as the king who reunified Egypt post-Akhenaten. Fought wars
to regain territories in the north, in Libya, and a bit in the Near East.
Shabti/Shawabti/Ushebti
Egyptian mortuary statues. Rather small and
constructed en masse as “substitutes” for the deceased if they were
conscripted into doing labor. The concept was that they would perform
the conscripted duties for the deceased. Generally constructed in sets
of three hundred and sixty-five, one for each day of the year.
Sinhue
The lead character in “The Story of Sinhue,” a piece of Egyptian
literature set during the rule of Amenemhat I but written 100 yrs later. He is falsely implicated in a royal coup, flees to the
desert where he is found by Palestinian nomads, becomes one of them for
a time, and then returns to Egypt where he is welcomed with open arms by
the king. Implications of Egyptian superiority and benevolence of the king.
Snefru
Egyptian pharaoh, 4th Dynasty. Known as “good King Snefru,” due
to his reputation as a good man. First king to be referred to by his
personal name rather than his Horus-name. The cult of Re came to
prominence during his reign – kings came to be known as “sons of Re” -
the focus was no longer on stars anymore but on the Sun – change in
orientation of monuments to east-west from stellar-based north-south.
Builder of the first true pyramid. Tombs became less like homes and
more like temples. Made focus on the future rather than the past.
Built three pyramids, all of which were bigger than any previous pyramid
– these include the Bent Pyramid, his second, which may have been
intended as a massive obelisk; most assume it was intended as a pyramid
but it was realized that the angle was too steep – also, the Red
Pyramid, his third and final pyramid.
Sumer
Near Eastern empire, ascended with Akkad. Prominent particularly
during the Ur III period. Ruled in tandem with Akkad after the invasion
of the Gutian hordes (starting under Ur-Nammu). First culture to develop writing, original language of cuneiform.
Talatat
based on an Arabic word meaning “three”; small-sized
construction blocks used particularly during the reign of Akhenaten,
facilitating quick building (such as the swift construction of
Akhenaten's city of Akhentaten). Later used by others as filler for
other construction.
Taharka
AKA Taharqa. Nubian pharaoh, 25th Dynasty. Defeated by the
Assyrians but managed to regain his control over Egypt. Worked to
restore Karnak Temple.
Tanis
Egyptian city. Location of the foundation of the 21st Dynasty –
center of power under Smendes. Site of Third Intermediate royal
burials. (Map on page 326 of Oxford.)
Tell el-Daba/Avaris
Location of the Egyptian capital during Hyksos
occupation during the Second Intermediate Period. Traditionally an
Asiatic occupied area – evidence exists that it was a location for
Egyptianized Asiatics since the 13th Dynasty. Location of earliest
evidence of horses and chariots in Egypt. Local god was Seth.
Tell el-Yahudiya Juglet
Juglets characteristic of the Hyksos that show the expansion of the Hyksos and are the only distinctly Hyksos artifacts that are widely spread.
Thutmose III
Egyptian pharaoh, 18th Dynasty. Dramatically expanded
Egypt's borders militarily. Was co-regent with Hatshepsut, which has
raised questions in modern times regarding his bitterness when he was
deemed the rightful king.
The Eloquent Peasant
Piece of Egyptian literature, detailing the
appeals of a man who had been robbed and his eloquence, which was
recorded for the entertainment of the king. He appeals multiple times
before finally being granted justice and the properties of the man who
robbed him.
Tutankhamun
Egyptian pharaoh, 18th Dynasty. Likely the son of
Akhenaten, though by one of his minor wives. Regarded as being the
first to renounce the heretical religion instituted by Akhenaten and
bring back the old established Egyptian religion. Well-known in modern
times after the discovery of his tomb in 1923, which was almost entirely
intact – quite rare for royal tombs. Had an iron knife in his tomb (first iron working in Egypt)
Ugarit
City in the Near East; small city-state on the Syrian coast,
had their own language; seen as a vassal state to the Egyptians, then to
the Hatti. Hub of trade. Source of purple textiles.
Uraeus
the cobra symbol featured on the headdresses of Pharaohs.
Plural: uraei. Uraei were first worn by Nubian pharaohs to indicate
ruling over Nubia and Egypt; previously, two had only been worn by queens.
Ur
Ancient Near Eastern empire and city. Important burial site of ED
II period. Ur-Nammu's capital city over Akkad and Sumer.
Window of Appearances
Formal balcony of mortuary temple palaces facing
into temple forecourt or towards the avenue leading up to it. Part of a
“reward ceremony,” or a gift-giving ceremony as part of a festival held
about once or twice a year.
Wisdom literature
Genre of literature in both Egyptian and Near
Eastern literature (though obviously we have studied more Egyptian
pieces). Generally written from father to son, or at least in the style
of father to son. Many pieces were written from the perspective of an
individual posthumously by their sons, either to give more credence to
the wisdom or to validate their own reign or their own policies. The
advice tended to focus primarily on ways to maintain Ma'at.
Ziggurat
Near Eastern stepped mound on which were built Near Eastern
temples. Their precise significance is unclear, other than that it was
of some religious importance. Possible precursor to the Egyptian pyramid.
Nesting
The concept of including several forms of the same thing. This is a reflection of the Egyptian concept of the multiplicity of approaches, where many things can be true at the same time. This is reflected in things like mortuary goods, where there will be many layers and in the portrayal of things such as the moon god, where the moon god is represented in many different ways.
Nimrud/Kalhu
Assyrian city located on the Tigris River. The city was made the capital of the Assyrian Empire by Shalmaneser I in the mid 13th century BCE. He built palaces and gardens on the ruins of the old city. There was a ziggurat located here.
Nineveh
Major city in ancient Assyria. City dedicated to Ishtar. King Assurbanipal of Assyria compiled library at Nineveh. Established as the capital for King Sennacherib (ruled 704-681 BCE)
Nubia/Nubians
Located south of Egypt. Egyptians trade with the Nubians for goods such as ostrich feathers not located in Egypt and also gold. During the 25th dynasties, Nubia conquered Egypt and inspired a renaissance for older Egyptian customs.
Osiris
God of fertility and death/rebirth. He is married to Isis. Horus is conceived by Isis and Osiris after his death. Osiris is killed by his brother Seth who nails him into a coffin, drowns him, and then cuts him up into small pieces and scatters him across Egypt. Every piece is recovered except for his penis which was eaten by a fish. The fact that he is castrated allows all people, regardless of gender, to be associated with him after death. As he is a fertility god, he is often shown with blue, green, or black skin and sometimes in an ithyphallic form. He was very popular among the people. Cult center at Abydos.
Personal piety
During the Amarna period, nobody could worship the god (the aton) directly, but instead worshipped Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti. After the Amarna period, there was a trend towards personal worship of the god. Average people could worship the god and form a personal relationship with him directly.
Persepolis
Capital of the Persian empire in the Near East. Within this city are depictions of people of many cultures, reflecting the Persian method of governing that allowed conquered peoples to keep their own traditions. Here, a variety of languages and scripts were equally embraced. All provinces were forced to pay annual tributes to Persepolis. Burned by Alexander the Great intentionally or in a drunken accident.
Persian Empire
The Persians conquered Egypt in 525 BCE. They conquered the Near East around 539 CBCE. The Persians followed a policy of allowing conquered people to retain old traditions and customs. However, after Egypt rebelled and was reconquered, the Persians treated Egypt quite harshly and the Alexander the Great was welcomed in 332 BCE.
Psamtek I/Psammetichus I
King during the Saite Period/26th dynasty. Installed as Assyrian governor but quickly has himself crowned king. He reigned for 54 years. He compelled the existing God's wife of Amun to adopt his daughter Nitocris, who then became God's wife.
Pseusennes I
King during the 21st dynasty (around 1039-990 BCE), which ruled from Tanis and was Libyan. He rules 48 years. Like all kings of the 21st dynasty, he was active only in the North of the country. His gold burial mask was found, showing him as being very Egyptian.
Ptolemaic Dynasty
This dynasty was founded by Ptolemy I, a general of Alexander. After Alexander's death, his three main generals divided up his empire and Ptolemy I received Egypt. He was crowned Pharaoh and ruled Egypt as its King. He brought coins, an invention of the Greeks, to Egypt. The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled until 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII.
Punt
An important region for trade with Egypt. It is located in Eastern Africa and Egypt gets ceremonial goods such as ostrich feathers from Punt. One of the scenes in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri depicts a trading expedition to Punt.
Pylon
These massive gateways represented the horizon in Egyptian temples. A sun disc usually is mounted on the pylon to help the representation of the horizon. Often the pylon is flanked by obelisks. In the Komombo temple, there are two main axes with two sun discs.
Pyramid Texts
First seen with Unas at the end of the 5th dynasty. They also were used in the 6th dynasty with Pepi I, Pepi II, and Teti. They are inscriptions carved in pyramids. These later evolved into Books of the Dead and coffin texts.
Qadesh/Kadesh
City in the Ancient Near East. Ramesses II fought a battle at Kadesh, where he believed misinformation from Hittite messengers. He advanced on the city, where his army was defeated. However, this was a moment of personal victory for Ramesses II, as he supposedly fought very valiantly while outnumbered. He set up reliefs and stelas commemorating his bravery.
Queen Tiye
The principal queen of Amenhotep III during the 18th dynasty. She was also the mother of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten. Though she is not royal by blood, she and her husband are shown ruling as a pair. She was deified in her own temple at Segeinga in Upper Nubia. She had personal and official correspondence with foreign leaders as equal
Rishi coffin
These coffins were introduced in the 2nd Intermediate Period. They were characterized by a feather pattern on the coffin. They were used by both commoners and members of the royal family. The wings of Horus supposedly embrace the body.
Saite Dynasty
This is the 26th Dynasty, ruling Egypt from 672-525 BCE. This was the last Egyptian dynasty before the Persian conquest in 525 BCE. Psamtek I founded this dynasty. They ruled from Sais in the delta region.
Sea peoples
A group of people that raided the Mediterranean area. They invaded Egypt during the reign of Ramesses III and were fought off. However, the result of this invasion was the presence of Libyans in the delta region.
Second Cataract Forts
Located in Nubia, the Second Cataract was an important area to control in order to control trade and people coming in from Nubia. Senwosret III established the Second Cataract at Semna as the Egyptian border after a visit. Traders were forced to go through the entire fort in order to enter Egypt. This Cataract represented the extent of Egyptian control during this period.
Sennacherib
The son of Sargon II. He succeeded his father to the
Assyrian throne in 705 BCE and ruled until 681 BCE. He sacked many cities in the Judah province, but not Jerusalem after a rebellion in 701 BCE
Senwosret I/Sesostris I
Ruled during the 12th dynasty. He was the son of Amenemhat I and rose to the throne after his father's assassination. Theoretically, Amenemhat I left instructions for his son detailing that he not trust anyone and remain above the political games. However, given that these instructions were written after the death of Amenemhat I, it is probable that Senwosret wrote these instructions as part of his political propaganda. Like his father, Senwosret tried to unify Egypt culturally. He encouraged a uniform education all across Egypt.
Senwosret III/Sesostris
He ascended to the throne after the reign of Amenemhat II. He moved the border back to the Second Cataract and built many forts there. He also made radical changes to the art. Statues looked very tired, with big ears and heavy lidded eyes. This shows the king with the weight of the world on his shoulders.
Ba
Egypt-represents the Personality of the individual; part of soul; develops during life
Beni Hassan
Egypt- Location of rock cut shrine, now called speos artemidos inscribed by Hatshepsut (she restored the temples in the area), center of cult of war god Pakhet, 39 tombs of Middle Kingdom nomarchs of the Oryx nome,
Book of the Dead
16th dynasty- egypt- Funeral text not in heavy use during amarna period. Large collection of funeral spells
Broken-Lintel Gates
Egypt Akhenaten Gates with no crossbars so the rays of Aten could enter the
Buhen
Egypt 12th dynasty City / fortress under second cataract
Canopic Jars
Egypt Began in Old Kingdom Used in the storage of the visceral organs during the mummification process.
Cartouche
Egypt Began in Old Kingdom Elliptical outline representing a length of knotted rope with which certain elements of the Egyptian royal tutelary were surrounded from the 4th dynasty onwards
Clay Token
Near East 8000 BCE Pre form of Cuneiform, used to symbolize goods in economic exchange
Cleopatra VII
Egypt January 69 BC–November 30, 30 BC last of the Ptolemy Dynasty “seduced” Cesar to gain control of Egypt; and Marc Anthony
Coffin Texts
Egypt Began in Old Kingdom
[Came to be known as Coffin Text in the Middle Kingdom] Group of over 1000 spells, selections from which were inscribed on coffins during the middle kingdom.
Cuneiform
Near East 34th century BCE Way of writing in the Near east, became the standard for international
correspondence during as found in Amarna, wedges symbolize sounds
Cush/Kush
Egypt 1700-1500 BCE
[height of civilization] Nubian city state, capital at Kerma, source of resources from south
Deir el-Medina
Egypt 18th to 20th dynasty City of the workers that labored over the tombs made in the valley of the kings
Deir el-Bahri
Egypt 11th dynasty Complex of mortuary temples and tombs across the Nile from Luxor; Established by Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty; Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut built there
Divine Barque/ Divine Bark
Egypt Object Divine Boat, carried statutes of deities in processions and festivals.
Divine Cow/Nut
Egypt Mythical creature , book of Mixed spells with story. Story of how Humans Rebelled Against Re and were punished. Also (the cow) represents the goddess Nut, upon which Re rode into the sky.
Divine Impregnation/ Divine Birth
Egypt Concept Responsible/ explanation of the kings divine authority over the country. Normally Amun-Re takes human form and impregnates the mother of the future king.Elam
Elam
Near East City State described, in akkadian literature, as hostile. Located in the south near East.
Elephantine
Egypt Trading Trading post between Nubia and Egypt past the first Cataract on an island in the Nile
Enkidu
Near East ~3000 BCE A mythical wild-person raised by animals; his beast-like ways are finally tamed by a courtesan named Shamhat. Later he adventures with Gilgamesh until his death in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Older sources sometimes transliterate his name as Enkimdu, Eabani, or Enkita.