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48 Cards in this Set

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Affordances
= the discovery of options that a given situation or stimulus provides and infant. Falling down when walking down a ramp (ramp affords the possibility of falling down) (a toy that can be grasped, thrown, listened to has several affordances).
Multimodal Approach to Perception
How information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated. Can an infant recognize something by sight that they have only felt. If you gave an infant a pacifier but he could never see it would his touch senses allow him to identify the pacifier as such?
Sense of Smell =
babies 12 – 18 days old can distinguish their mothers on scent alone. Bottle fed babies could not distinguish mother on smell alone.
Auditory Perception =
hearing begins prenatally, infants are more sensitive than adults to certain very high and very low frequencies which increases in the first two years. Later middle range frequency improves.
Binocular Vision =
the ability to combine the images coming to each eye to see depth and motion (achieved around 14 weeks). Before this infants do not integrate images coming from both eyes and sight is blurred. Page 139 Visual Cliff
Distance Vision =
20/200 – 20/600 infants only accurately see material up to 20 feet as compared to the adult accuracy of 200 and 600 feet. Is only 1/10 to 1/3 that of an adults distance vision. By six months an infant’s distance vision is 20/20 that identical of an adult’s
Nonorganic Failure to Thrive -
infants that show similar signs of being deprived of food. By the age of 18 mo children stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention from their parents. (underdeveloped, listless, and apathetic) lack of emotional stimulation.
Weaning =
the gradual cessation of breast or bottle-feeding is subjective and culturally driven.
Solid Foods =
infants usually start solids around 4-6 months.Foods are introduced gradually for allergy purposes.
Reasons for not bottle feeding =
not having clean water, income to buy formula, may water down formula
Reasons for not breast feeding
include difficulty producing milk, medicine, infectious disease AIDS, mother is ill, practical reasons job that does not have flexible schedules even for pumping.
Breast or Bottle:
1940’s led a belief that bottle feeding was preferred and breast feeding put babies at risk. The amount of milk could be measured in bottle fed babies. Bottle fed babies helped mothers maintain rigid schedules.

Today breast fed babies is what is encouraged for the first 12 months. Nutrients and immunity against respiratory illnesses, ear infections, diarrhea, allergies, easily digested sterile, convenient, some evidence indicates it may enhance cognitive development. Only 70% of US woman breast feed (highest rate among women of higher SES, more education, older woman, and social and cultural support). Babies that sleep with the mother and nurse at will wake frequently.
Obesity =
weight greater than 20% above the average for a given heights.
Perception =
the sorting out, interpretation, analysis and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain. Mental processing
Infants’ understanding of the world around them are sensation and perception.
Sensation =
the physical stimulation of the sense organs.
Dynamic Systems Theory - How Motor Development is Coordinated (Esther Thelen / Developmentalist) =
a theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated.

How motor behaviors are assembled through the coordination of a variety of other skills. For example in order for an infant to be able to pick up a small object like a marble they must have the visual ability to do such as well as the environment enabling such activity. (muscles, perception, cognition and motivation) Children’s interaction with their environment lead to advancements in motor activity.
Kwashiorkor =
disease swelling of water in face, stomach & limbs
Marasmus =
a disorder of sever malnutrition during infancy causing infants to stop growing (results in death)
Undernutrition =
some deficiency in the diet.
Malnutrition =
the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients. Physical growth is stunted, IQ scores are lower,

2 million children in the US live in poverty which puts them at risk for malnutrition.
Nutrition =
physical growth is fueled by proper nutrients. Without good nutrients infants cannot reach physical potential and suffer cognitive and social consequences.
Environment =
enriched environments that promote physical development can accelerate some motor skills.
Cultural =
cultural factor may inhibit or advance certain motor development

Ache people of South America carry their infants often for the first two years of life due to the limitation of open space.

Kipsigis people of Kenya Africa parent teach their infants to be independent, sit up and walk from very early ages (8 weeks)

Not all motor development can be accelerated (1 mo olds cannot be taught to stand and walk)
Norm-
The term for the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age.
Norms are useful if they are based on data from large, heterogeneous, culturally diverse sample of children.
Issues that Affect Motor Development:
Supplement to the Apgar Test
27 categories of responses in four general aspects of infants’ behavior
1. interactions with others, alertness, cuddliness
2. motor behavior
3. physiological control (ability to be soothed from upset)
4. responses to stress
Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS)
A measure designed to determine infants’ neurological and behavioral responses to their environment.
Milestones (benchmarks) of motor development/
Fifty percent of children are able to perform certain motor skills at certain age points. Specific timing for a skill varies widely.
Developmental Norms =
the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age. Permits comparisons between a particular child’s performance on a particular behavior and average performance. (averages broad interpretations)
Pincer grasp =
thumb and index finger meet to form a circle. Children typically learn to pick up objects with their whole hand, later they learn more precise motor control.
Fine Motor Skills
Use of small muscle groups to ensure future more complexed intricate locomotive development (reaching and grasping for objects, picking up and grasping a spoon, holding a pencil, picking up small objects like marbles, holding a cup without spilling it contents)
Simple sequential developmental patterns are combined with more sophisticated ones.
Gross Motor Skills =
Use of large muscle groups to ensure future more complexed locomotive development (walking, throwing, jumping).
Child Development
study patterns growth, change, stability
Topical Areas
3: physical, cognitive, social
Social/ Personality Dev
social interactions, changes, growth, stability
Cognitive Dev
growth and change intellectual capabilities
Personality Dev
characteristics differente 1 person from another
Social Dev
grow, change, remain stable
Physical Dev
physical makeup brain, nervous system, muscles, senses, and basic needs
Prenatal
conception to birth
Infancy & Toddlerhood
birth to age 3
Preschool
ages 3-6
Middle Childhood
ages 6-12
Adolescence
ages 12-20
Entry into adolescence is dependent upon
sexual maturity
Race
biological/ physical & structural
Ethnicity
cultural background, nationality, religion & language
Cohort
groups born same era & vicinity
History Graded Influence
biological environmental influence historical event