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544 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
away from
Ab
to, toward
Ad
up
Ana
against
Anti
life
Bio
together
Con
to undo, free from
Dis
back of body
Dors/i
outside
Ecto
inward
Eso
cause (of disease)
Eti/o
under, below
Infra
bad
Mal
middle
Meso
one
Mono
death (cells of body)
Necro
night
Noct/i
organ
Organ/o
light
Photo
first
Prim/i
back
Retro
half
Semi
over, above
Super
three
Tri
beyond, excess
Ultra
one
Uni
cell
-cytle
condition
-iasis
disease
-pathy
inflammation
-itis
instrument for visual examination
-scope
pain
-algia
killing
-cidal
vomiting
-emesis
smell
-odia
vision
-opia
infection
-sepsis
air, gas
Aer/o
alveolus
Alveol/o
rib
Cost/o
breast
Mast/o
breath
Spir/o
bronchus
Bronch/i
bronchiole
Bronchiol/e
chest
Steth/o
lobe
Lob/o
lung
Pulmon/o
lung, air
Pneumat/o
lung, air
Pneum/o
lung, air
Pneumon/o
milk
Lact/o
mucus
Muc/o
sternum
Stern/o
thorax(chest)
Thorac/o
breathing
-pnea
carbon dioxide
-capnia
thorax
-thorax
surgical procedure to aspirate fluid
-centesis
anterior axillary line
AAL
anterior/posterior
AP
adult respiratory disease syndrome
ARDS
breast self examination
BSE
chest x-ray
CXR
electrocardiogram
EKG, ECG
head of bed
HOB
history and physical
H & P
intermittent positive pressure breathing
IPPB
left lower lobe
LLL
left upper lobe
LUL
oxygen
O2
mid-clavicular line
MCL
mid-vertebral line
MVL
mid-scapular line
MSL
posterior axillary line
PAL
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PCP
shortness of breath
SOB
turn, cough, and deep breathe
TCDB
tracheostomy
Trach
bronchial asthma
BA
cystic fibrosis
CF
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD
obstructive sleep apnea
OSA
respiratory distress syndrome
RDS
sudden, acute respiratory syndrome
SARS
upper respiratory infection
URI
smallest structure of mammary gland
Alveoli
caked area surrounding nipple
Areola
thin, yellow fluid
Colostrum
benign breast mass
Fibroadenoma
excessive breast development in male
Gynecomastia
nipples depressed
Inverted
inflammation of breast
Mastitis
orange peel appearance of breast due to adema
Peau d' orange
dimpled or pucker on the skin
Retraction
atrophic pink, purple, or white linear streaks on the breasts or other areas of the body (stretch marks)due to fast weight gain
Striae
extension of breast tissue into axillae
Tail of Spence
functional units of the lung; site of respiratory exchange of CO2 and O2
Alveoli
manubriosternal angle, continuous with the 2nd rib
Angle of Louis
cessation of breathing
Apnea
abnormal resp. condition characterized by bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea
Asthma
abnormal resp. condition characterized by collapsed,shrunken, deflated section of alveoli
Atelectasis
slow breathing < 10 breaths per minute
Bradypnea
a smaller resp. passageway into which the segmental bronchi divide
Bronchiole
abnormal resp. condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, resulting in partial obstruction from excessive mucus
Bronchitis
normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, 1st and 2nd intercostal space
Bronchovesicular
abnormal resp. condition characterized by airway obstruction (bronchitis, emphysema)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease/COPD
millions of hair-like cells lining the tracheobronchial tree
Cilia
solidification of portions of lung tissue (pneumnonia)
Consolidation
abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration (rales)
Crackles
course crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air escapes from lungs
Crepitus
difficult, labored breathing
Dyspnea
abnormal respiratory condition characterized by air trapping of alveoli
Emphysema
palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall
Fremitus
coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed
Friction rub
increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypercapnia
increased rate and depth of breathing
Hyperventilation
decreased level of 02 in the blood
Hypoxemia
space between the ribs
Intercostal space
ability to breathe easily only in an upright position
Orthopnea
sudden awakening fromo sleeping with shortness of breath
Paroxysmal nocturnal dypsnea
abnormal fluid between layers of the pleura
Pleural effusion
low-pitched, musical, snoring caused by airway obstruction (adventitious)
Rhonchi
rapid, shallow breathing
> 24 breaths per minute
Tachypnea
soft, low-pitched normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields
Vesicular
high-pitched, musical, squeaking adventitious lung sound
Wheeze
lower tip of the sternum
Xiphoid process
aorta
Aort/o
vessel
Angi/o
artery
Arteri/o
arteriole
Arteriol/o
yellowish fatty plaque
Ather/o
atrium
Atri/o
heart
Cardi/o,
heart
Coron/o
neck, neck-like
Trachel/o
valve
Valv/o
valve
Valvul/o
vessel, duct
Vas/o
vein
Ven/o
ventricle
Ventricul/o
constricted structure
-stenosis
apical impulse
AI
arteriovenous or atrioventricualar (as in valves)
AV
beats per minute
BPM
coronary artery bypass graft
CABG
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPR
electrocardiogram
ECG/EKG
left ventricular hypertrophy
LVH
mid-clavicular line
MCL
point of maximum impulse
PMI
right ventricular hypertrophy
RVH
first heart sound: closure of AV valves
S1
second heart sound: closure of semilunar valves
S2
semilunar valves or stroke volume
SV
left semilunar valve separating left ventricle and the aorta
Aortic valve
tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th intercostal space
Apex of heart
point of maximal impulse pulsation created as the left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole (5th left intercostals space in mid-clavicular line)
Apical impulse
heart stops beating
Asystole
broader area of heart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal spaces
Base of the heart
cup-shaped end piece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds
Bell (of the stethoscope)
slow heart rate

<50 beats per minute in the adult
Bradycardia
bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
Clubbing
dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Cyanosis
flat end piece of the stethoscope for high-pitched sounds
Diaphragm (of the stethoscope)
the heart's filling phase
Diastole
difficult, labored breathing
Dyspnea
swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid
Edema
traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostal space
Erb's point
occurs with closure of the atrioventricular valves signaling the beginning of systole
First heart sound (S1)
technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds
Inching
left atrioventricular valve separating the left atria and ventricle
Mitral valve
uncomfortable awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate
Palpitation
high-pitched scratchy extra cardiac sound heard when the precordium is inflamed
Pericardial friction rub
normal variation in S2 heard as two separate components during inspiration
Physiological splitting
area of the chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels
Precordium
right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Pulmonic valve
occurs with closure of the semilunar valves, aortic and pulmonic, and signals the end of systole and the beginning of diastole
Second Heart Sound (S2)
temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow (fainting), caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bradycardia, or ventricular fibrillation
Syncope
the heart's pumping phase
Systole
rapid heart rate,
> 100 beats per minute in the adult
Tachycardia
palpable vibration on the chest wall accompanying severe heart murmur
Thrill
right atrioventricular valve separating the right atria and ventricle
Tricuspid valve
abdomen
Abdomin/o
appendix
Appendic/o
cecum
Cec/o
abdomen (cavity)
celi/o
bile duct
Cholangi/o
gall,bile
Chol/e
colon
Col/o
bladder
Cyst/o
diaphragm
Diaphragmat/o
diverticulum
Diverticul/o
duodenum
Duoden/o
intestines
Enter/o
esophagus
Esophag/o
stomach
Gastr/o
liver
Hepat/o
hernia
Herni/o
ileum
Ile/o
ileum
Ili/o
jejunum
Jejun/o
abdomen
Lapar/o
stone, calculus
Lith/o
kidney
Nephr/o
kidney
Ren/o
organ
Organ/o
umbilicus
Omphal/o
pancreas
Pancreat/o
pelvis
Pelv/i
pelvis
Pelv/o
peritoneum
Peritone/o
ureter
Ureter/o
urethra
Urethro/o
urine
Urin/o
urine
Ur/o
bladder
Vesic/o
internal organs
Viscer/o
absence of normal opening
-atresia
cut into, incision
-otomy
artificial opening
-ostomy
digestion
-pepsia
eating, swallowing
-phagia
urine, urination
-uria
Abdomen/abdominal
Abd.
bowel movement
BM
bowel sounds
BS
costovertebral angle
CVA
gastrointestinal
GI
left lower quadrant
LLQ
left upper quadrant
LUQ
nausea and vomiting
N & V
right lower quadrant
RLQ
right upper quadrant
RUQ
defect or sac formed by dilation in artery wall
Aneurysm
loss of appetite for food
Anorexia
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid within the peritoneal cavity
Ascites
blowing, swooshing sound heard through a stethoscope when an artery is partially obstructed
Bruit
first or proximal part of large intestine
Cecum
inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecycystitis
lower border of rib margin formed by the medial edges of the 8th, 9th, 10th ribs
Costal margin
angle formed by the 12th rib and the vertebral column on the posterior thorax, overlying the kidney
Costovertebral angle
difficulty swallowing
Dysphagia
name of abd. region between the costal margins
Epigastrium
abnormal enlargement of liver
Hepatomegaly
abnormal protrusion of bowel through weakening in abd. musculature
Hernia
ligament extending from pubic bone to anterior superior iliac spine, forming lower border of abd.
Inguinal ligament
abnormal enlargement of internal organ(s)
Organomegaly
complete absence of peristaltic movement that may follow abd. surgery or complete bowel obstruction
Paralytic ileus
inflammation of the peritoneum
Peritonitis
abnormally sunken abd. wall as with malnutrition or underweight
Scaphoid
abnormal enlargement of the spleen
Splenomegaly
silvery white or pink scar formed by stretching of abd. skin as with pregnancy or obesity
Striae
name of abd. region just superior to pubic bone
Suprapubic
high-pitched, musical, drum-like percussion note heard when percussing over the stomach and intestine
Tympany
depression on the abdomen marking site of entry of umbilical cord
Umbilicus
internal organs
Viscera
artery
Arteri/o
yellowish, fatty plaque
Ather/o
blockage, deficiency
Ish/o
lymph
Lymph/o
clot
Thromb/o
vein
Phleb/o
vein
Ven/o
hardening
-sclerosis
arteriosclerotic heart disease
ASHD
deep vein thrombosis
DVT
peripheral vascular system
PVS
determining the patency of the radial and ulnar arteries by compressing one artery site and observing return of the skin color as evidence of patency of the artery
Allen Test
defect or sac formed by dilation in artery wall due to atherosclerosis, trauma, or congenital defect
Aneurysm
variation from the heart's normal rhythm
Arrhythmia
hardening of the arteries
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
Atherosclerosis
slow heart rate, < 50 beats per minute
Bradycardia
blowing, swooshing sound heard through a stethoscope when an artery is partially occluded
Bruit
dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Cyanosis
the heart's filling phase
Diastole
ultrasonic stethoscope to detect peripheral pulses
Doppler
calf pain that occurs when the foot is sharply dorsiflexed (pushed up toward the knee)
Homan's sign
deficiency of arterial blood to a body part, due to constriction
Ischemia
muscular pain brought on by exercise, due to arterial insufficiency
Intermittent claudication
swelling of extremity due to obstructed lymph channel
Lymphedema
disease of the lymph glands; persistant, generalized swelling of the lymph nodes
Lymphadenopathy
small oval clumps of lymphatic tissue located at grouped intervals
Lymph nodes
tumor of lymphatic tissue
Lymphoma
indentation left after examiner depresses the skin over swollen edematous tissue
Pitting edema
pressure wave created by each heartbeat, palpable over arteries close to the skin
Pulse
heart's pumping phase
Systole
inflammation of the vein associated with thrombus formation
Thrombophlebitis
dilated tortuos veins with incompetent valves
Varicose vein
open skin lesion extending into dermis with sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue
Ulcer
male
Andr/o
anus
An/o
Balan/o
glans penis
Epididym/o
edididymus
hernia
Herni/o
testis, testicle
Orchid/o
testis, testicle
Orchi/o
testis, testicle
Orch/o
prostate
Prostat/o
sperm
Spermat/o
testicle
Test/o
vessel/duct
Vas/o
seminal vesicle
Vesicul/o
hernia protrusion
-cele
state of
-ism
constricted
-stenosis
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIDS
benign prostate hypertrophy
BPH
sexually transmitted infection (disease)
STI (STD)
Testicular Self-Examination
TSE
transurethral resection of the prostate
TURP
sexual intercourse between male and female
Coitus
ejection of semen and fluids (seminal fluids) from male urethra
Ejaculation
structure composed of coiled ducts of testes; stores sperm
Epididymus
congenital defect in which the urethra opens on dorsal (upper) side of penis
Epispadias
painful longitudinal tear in tissue (anal)
Fissure
male and female sex glands
Gonads
mass of dilated, tortous veins in the anorectal area
Hemorrhoid
weak spot in abdominal wall through which a loop of bowel may protrude
Hernia
scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid along the tubes within the testes
Hydrocele
congenital defect in which urethra opens on ventral (under) side of penis
Hypospadias
blood in the stool
Melena
acute inflammation of testis
Orchitis
foreskin is retracted and fixed behind glans penis
Paraphimosis
encircles upper end of urethra; secretes a fluid that aids in movement of sperm
Prostate gland
cancer of the prostate gland
Prostatic Cancer
itching or burning sensation in the skin
Pruritis
sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis. Contains the testes suspended by the spermatic cord
Scrotum
collection of vas deferens, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves that ascends along the testes and through the inguinal canal into the abdomen
Spermatic cord
resection through the urethra to cut back an enlarged prostate
Transurethral resection of the prostate
duct carrying sperm from the epididymis through the abdomen and then into the urethra
Vas deferens
first/beginning
Arche/o
cervix
Cervic/o
vagina
Colp/o
cul-de/sac
Culd/o
bladder
Cyst/o
vulva
Episi/o
pregnant
Gravid/o
woman
Gynec/o
woman
Gyn/o
hymen
Hymen/o
uterus
Hyster/o
milk
Lact/o
stone
Lith/o
breast
Mamm/o
breast
Mast/o
meatus
Meat/o
menstruation
Men/o
uterus
Metr/o
birth
Nat/o
kidney
Nephr/o
night
Noct/o
scanty, few
Olig/o
ovary
Oophor/o
egg
Oo/o
perineum
Perine/o
renal pelvis
Pyel/o
fallopian tube
Salping/o
ureter
Ureter/o
urethra
Urethra/o
urine
Urin/o
uterus
Uter/o
vagina
Vagin/o
vulva
Vulv/o
absence of normal body opening; closure
-atresia
pertaining to
-ial
rapid flow of blood
-oorhagia
fallopian tube
-salpinx
urine, urination
-uria
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIDS
papanicolaou test
PAP
pelvic inflammatory disease
PID
urinary tract infection
UTI
accessory organs of uterus (ovaries, fallopian tubes)
Adnexa
absence of menstruation
Amenorrhea
small, elongated, erectile tissue in female, located anterior juncture of labia minora
Clitoris
inflammation of the bladder
Cystitis
prolapse of urinary bladder and its vaginal mucosa into vagina
Cystocele
abd. cramping and pain associated with menstruation
Dysmenorrhea
painful intercourse
Dyspareunia
red-tinged or bloody urination
Hematuria
membranous fold of tissue partly closing vaginal orifice
Hymen
whitish or yellowish discharge from vaginal orofice
Leukorrhea
onset of first menstruation, usually between 11 and 13 years of age
Menarche
cessation of the menses
Menopause
excessively heavy menstrual flow
Menorrhagia
inflammation of the kidney
Nephritis
painless test to detect cervical cancer
Papanicolaou Test
inflammation of fallopian tubes
Salpingitis
stones in the kidney
Renal Calculi
infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
Urinary tract infection
inflammation of the vagina
Vaginitis
crooked, stiff
Ankyl/o
joint
Arthr/o
bursa
Burs/o
carpals (wrist bones)
Carp/o
cartilage
Chondr/o
clavicle
Clavic/o
rib
Cost/o
skull
Crani/o
disk
Disk/o
femur (upper leg bone)
Femor/o
fibula (lower leg bone)
Fibul/o
fibrous tissue
Fibr/o
humerous (upper arm bone)
Humer/o
ilium
Ili/o
ischium
Ishi/o
movement, motion
Kinesi/o
hump
Kyph/o
bent forward
Lord/o
mandible (lower jaw bone)
Mandibul/o
maxilla (upper jaw bone)
Maxill/o
meniscus
Menisci/o
muscle
My/o
bone marrow
Myel/o
bone
Oste/o
patella (kneecap)
Patell/o
phalanges (finger or toe bones)
Phalang/o
pubis
Pub/o
radius (lower arm bone)
Radi/o
connective tissue
Sarc/o
scapula (shoulder blade)
Scapul/o
crooked, curved
Scoli/o
sternum (breastbone)
Stern/o
synovia, synovial membrane
Synovi/o
tarsals (ankle bone)
Tars/o
tendon
Tend/o
tibia (lower leg bone)
Tibi/o
ulna (lower arm bone)
Uln/o
vertebra
Vertebr/o
weakness
-asthenia
break
-clasis
break
-clast
break
-clasia
surgical fixation
-desis
growth
-physis
split, fissure
-schisis
involuntary muscle contraction
-spasm
Ambulate
Amb.
below knee amputation
BKA
fracture
Fx
osteoarthritis
OA
rheumatoid arthritis
RA
range of motion
ROM
moving a body part away from an axis or the median line
Abduction
moving a body part toward the center or toward the midline
Adduction
immobility, consolidation, and fixation of a joint
Ankylosis
pain in a joint
Arthralgia
inability to perform coordinated movements
Ataxia
bony overgrowths located on proximal interphalangeal joints (associated with osteoarthritis)
Bouchard's nodes
associated with rheumatoid arthritis; knuckle hyperextended
Boutonniere deformity
enclosed sac filled with viscous fluid located in joint areas of potential friction
Bursa
common painful disorder of the wrist due to compression of a nerve
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
moving the arm in a circle around the shoulder
Circumduction
shortening of a muscle
Contracture
dry cracking sound or sensation due to grating of the ends of damaged bone
Crepitation
displacement of bone from its natural position in a joint
Dislocation
flexion contractures of the fingers associated with osteoarthritis
Dupuytren's contracture
swelling in a joint
Effusion
moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle
Eversion
straightening a limb at a joint
Extension
bending a limb at a joint
Flexion
broken bone
Fracture
round, cystic, nontender nodule overlying a tendon sheath or joint (wrist)
Ganglion
bony overgrowths of the distal interphalangeal joints associated with osteoarthritis
Heberden's nodes
moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle
Inversion
outward or convex curvature of the thoracic spine, hunchback
Kyphosis
fibrous bands runnin directly from one bone to another bone
Ligament
inward or concave curvature of the lumbar spine
Lordosis
bony projection of the ulna at the elbow
Olecranon process
noninflammatory, localized, progressive disorder involving deterioration of joint/articulating surfaces
Osteoarthritis
loss of bone density (frequently in postmenopausal women)
Osteoporosis
kneecap
Patella
hands are held back to back for 60 seconds at a 90 degree angle; normal is not symptoms. In carpal tunnel syndrome, numbness and burning occur
Phalen's test
surface of the sole of the foot
Plantar
turning the forearm so that the palm is down
Pronation
moving a body part forward and parallel to the ground
Protraction
extent of movement of a joint, rated on scale of 1+ - 5+
Range of motion
moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground
Retraction
chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue
Rheumatoid arthritis
S-shaped lateral curvature of the thoracic spine
Scoliosis
raised, firm, nontender nodules commonly occuring along olecranon bursa, associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Subcutaneous nodules
incomplete dislocation
Subluxation
turning the forearm so that the palm is up
Supination
flexion contracture of metacarpophalangeal joint, then hyperextension of proximal interphalangeal joints; occurs with RA
Swan neck deformity
cerebellum
Cerebell/o
cerebrum, brain
Cerebr/o
hard, dura mater
Dur/o
brain
Encephal/o
ganglion
Gangli/o
meninges
Mening/
spinal cord
Myel/o
nerve
Neur/o
physician, treatment
-iatry
seizure, attack
-ictal
slight paralysis
-paresis
central nervous system
CNS
computed tomography (uses computer to produce images of body)
CT
level of consciousness
LOC
lumbar puncture (used to diagnose cerebrospinal fluid)
LP
magnetic resonance imaging (uses magnetic waves to take cross-sectional and vertical pictures of structures)
MRI
peripheral nervous system
PNS
loss of ability to recognize sensory impressions
Agnosia
loss of ability to express thoughts in writing
Agraphia
loss of memory
Amnesia
loss of pain sensation
Analgesia
loss of feeling or sensation
Anesthesia
loss or impairment of the ability to speak
Aphasia
loss of ability to perform purposeful movements
Apraxia
lack of muscle coordination to perform movements
Ataxia
area in the cerebral portion of the brain controlling ability to begin speech
Broca's area
difficulty speaking
Dysphasia
rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of a muscle
Clonus
profound unconsciousness
Coma
violent jarring or shaking that results in vertigo and LOC
Concussion
awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings
Conscious
state of mental confusion and excitement;disorientation for time and place, incoherent speech, continuous aimless activity
Delirium
cognitive deficit including memory impairment
Dementia
imperfect articulation of speech
Dysarthria
impairment in speech consisting of lack of coordination and inability to arrange words in their proper order
Dysphasia
disappearance of conditioned response
Extinction
rapid, continuous twitching of resting muscle without movement of limb
Fasciculation
loss of muscle tone, limp
Flaccidity
style of walking
Gait
ability to "read" a number by having it traced on the skin
Graphesthesia
loss of motor power (paralysis) on one side of the body
Hemiplegia
motor neuron in the peripheral nervous system
Lower motor neuron
stiffness in cervical neck area
Nuchal rigidity
back and forth oscillation of the eyes
Nystagmus
prolonged arching of back due to meningeal irritation
Opisthotonos
decreased or loss of motor function
Paralysis
impairment or loss of motor/sensory function in lower half of body
Paraplegia
abnormal sensation (burning, numbness, tingling, prickling)
Parasthesia
ability of the person to discriminate exactly where on the body the skin has been touched
Point localization
sudden attack due to interruption of electrical patterns in the brain
Seizure
continuous resistance to stretching by a muscle due to abnormally increased tension
Spasticity
ability to recognize objects by feeling their forms, sizes, and weights while the eyes are closed
Stereognosis
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness
Syncope
repetitive twitching of a muscle group at inappropriate times
Tic
involuntary contraction of opposing muscle groups resulting in rhythmic movement of one or more joints
Tremor
ability to distinguish the separation of two simultaneous pin pricks on the skin
Two-point discrimination
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli
Unconsciousness
nerve entirely within the central nervous system
Upper motor neuron
area in the brain that controls ability to understand speech
Wernicke's area