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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Overview of Fatty Acid Breakdown
sequential removal of 2C as Acetyl coA to feed into TCA Cycle
First stage to prep for Oxidation

Creation of Acyl-CoA
i.e. activation, a fatty acid connected to a COA
Fatty acids must get activated to CoA derivative before oxidation, happens in cytosol
1=fatty acid + ATP~acyladenylate and PPI (cleaved to drive rxn)
acyl adenylate + CoA~Acyl CoA and AMP released
Now fatty acid activated in acyl Co A form and ready to head to matrix for oxidation
Different enzymes catalyze this for different length fatty acids
Get loaded Acyl CoA into matrix

If more than 14C needs help
Carnitine shuttle

1=Outside matrix Carnitine takes acyl group form COA (CAT1=carnatine acyl trasferase)
2=acyl carnatine taken across mito membrane into matrix (translocase)
3=Acyl carnatine gives acyl group back to CoA inside matrix (CAT 2)

*major regulated step in oxidation is the transfer into matrix by CAT1*
Fatty Acid oxidation

4 steps
Acy CoA hydrogenase removes 2 H's and puts them on FAD
Enoyl Co A hydratase adds H20
beta hydroxyacly CoA dehydrondenase removes H and drops on NAD
acyl-CoA acetyltransferase releases Actyl Co A

now can be fed into TCA cycle
Interaction with Coenzyme Q
the FAD from the first oxidation step here can drop the e- on Coenzyme Q which is a complex 2 in the ETC
Monounsaturated fatty Acids

Enoyl Co A Isomerase
our machinery deals with cis double bonds

This enzyme changes cis to trans so we can oxidize them
poly unsaturated fatty acids

2 Enzymes to convert cis to trans
enoyl-CoA isomerase does the first cis, same as with monounsaturated

2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase
Odd Chain Fatty Acids
Can be dealt with like normal, until the end where there are only 3 remaining carbons (Propionyl-CoA)

Solution to this problem is the addition of another carbon
Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation
Malonly C0A=inhibits carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CAT-1) which takes malonyl into matrix