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68 Cards in this Set

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What makes up fascia or fascial sheaths?
layers of dense connective tissue
What makes up fascial spaces/planes
relatively loose connective tissue; they are potential spaces where fluid may collect or spread through.
Superficial fascia
Just deep to the skin.
Contains the MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
3 deep cervical fascias
Investing fascia (superficial layer of deep cervical fascia)
Pretrachial fascia (visceral fascia)
Prevertebral fascia
Suprasternal Space of Burns
Before the investing fascia attaches to the MANUBRIUM, it splits into 2 layers-- the small space between these 2 layers.

The jugular venous arch traverses this space.
Limits of pretracheal fascia
superiorly: attached to hyoid bone and also to thyroid cartilage.

inferiorly: deep to the attachment of the infrahyoid muscles at the manubrium.

Laterally/posteriorly: forms part of CAROTID SHEATH
Structures encased in the pretracheal fascia
visceral unit: trachea, larynx, esophagus, thyroid gland
pretracheal fascia also known as....
visceral fascia
fascial spaces formed by pretracheal fascia
pretracheal space
visceral compartment
pretracheal space
(formed by pretracheal fascia)
space anterior and lateral to the trachea & esophagus; contains the THYROID GLAND.

Extends from hyoid bone superiorly to the superior mediastinum inferiorly.
Visceral compartment =
= pretracheal space + retroesophageal space
retroesophageal fascia
thin facia behind the esophagus
buccopharyngeal fascia
thick visceral layer at the pharynx; forms the outermost layer of the pharyngeal wall.
Retrovisceral space contains what 2 spaces?
retroesophageal space
retropharyngeal space
retroesophageal space
space posterior to hte esophagus and its fascia-- BETWEEN FASCIA ON ESOPHAGUS AND ALAR FASCIA.

Continuous with the superior mediastinum.
retropharyngeal space
space posterior to the pharyngeal wall-- between the BUCCOPHARYNGEAL FASCIA AND ALAR FASCIA.

continuous with retroesophageal space and thus the superior mediastinum.
Origin of infections in pretracheal space from....
thyroid gland
esophagus
spread from retrovisceral space
infection from pretracheal space spreads to....
directly into superior mediastinum
infection from retrovisceral space spreads to...
directly into superior mediastinum or into pretracheal space
What is the posterior layer of the deep cervical fascia?
prevertebral fascia
Anterior and posterior laminae
travel anterior to the bodies of the vertebrae and attach to the transverse processes of the other side.

anterior lamina = alar fascia
posterior lamina = prevertebral fascia
what does the prevertebral fascia encase?
vertebrae and the posterior neck muscles and prevertebral muscles
Danger space
space between the prevertebral and alar fascias, anterior to the bodies of the vertebrae.

Extends from base of skull to the superior mediastinum.

Lateral boundary: carotid sheath
Where does the prevertebral fascia fuse with the retrovisceral fascia?
About T3-T4; prevertebral fascia is continuous with the axillary fascia surrounding axillary artery and brachial plexus in axilla (armpit).
Danger space gets infection from where?
erosion through the alar fascia from the retropharyngeal space.
Danger space infection spreads where?
inferiorly directly into superior mediastinum.
What nerves/vessels are found in the carotid sheath?
common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve
Investing fascia at the body of the mandible
splits into 2 laminae as it comes near the inferior border of the body:

posterior lamina: attaches to inner aspect of mandible

anterior lamina: attaches to outside surface of mandible
the space of body of mandible extends from where to where?
extends from the symphysis menti (most mesial aspect of mandible) to the masseter muscle
Infections in the space of body of mandible arise from where?
anterior mandibular teeth
Masseteric fascia
lies on the surface of the masseter muscle and attaches superiorly to the zygomatic arch
pterygoid fascia
lies on the medial surface of the medial pterygoid muscle. Attaches superiorly to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid.
Temporalis fascia
investing fascia superior to the zygomatic arch. Covers the temporalis muscle and attaches to the superior temporal line.
What separates the parotid and submandibular glands?
stylomandibular ligament
Submandibular space
Space inferior to the mylohyoid muscle.

Between hte mylohyoid and the investing fascia.
Masseteric fascia
lies on the surface of the masseter muscle and attaches superiorly to the zygomatic arch
Masseteric fascia
lies on the surface of the masseter muscle and attaches superiorly to the zygomatic arch
pterygoid fascia
lies on the medial surface of the medial pterygoid muscle. Attaches superiorly to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid.
pterygoid fascia
lies on the medial surface of the medial pterygoid muscle. Attaches superiorly to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid.
Temporalis fascia
investing fascia superior to the zygomatic arch. Covers the temporalis muscle and attaches to the superior temporal line.
Temporalis fascia
investing fascia superior to the zygomatic arch. Covers the temporalis muscle and attaches to the superior temporal line.
What separates the parotid and submandibular glands?
stylomandibular ligament
What separates the parotid and submandibular glands?
stylomandibular ligament
Submandibular space
Space inferior to the mylohyoid muscle.

Between hte mylohyoid and the investing fascia.
Submandibular space
Space inferior to the mylohyoid muscle.

Between hte mylohyoid and the investing fascia.
Submental space
that part of the submandibular space in the submental TRIANGLE.

Separates the 2 submandibular spaces.
Origin of infections in submandibular space
-from 2nd and 3rd mand molar infections
-from sublingual space infections
-from submandibular gland
Spread of infection from submandibular space
-to submental space --> contralateral submandibular space
-sublingual space around posterior free margin of mylohyoid muscle.
-to lateral pharyngeal space
Sublingual space
space between the mylohyoid muscle and the mucosa of the floor of the mouth.
sublingual space contains....
sublingual gland, part of the submandibular gland and duct, lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve, sublingual artery
Origin of infections in sublingual space
-from infections of mand 1st molar and mand PM's
-from submandibular space infections
-from infections of the sublingual gland, tongue, floor of mouth, submandibular duct
Spread of infection from sublingual space
-to contralateral sublingual space
-to submandibular space around posterior free margin of mylohyoid muscle
-to lateral pharyngeal space
Submasseteric (masseteric) space
potential space between masseter and the lateral aspect of ramus of mandible
pterygomandibular space
potential space between medial pterygoid and medial surface of mandible.

location of lingual and inferior alveolar nerves.

site of inferior alveolar or mandibular blocks/injections
origin of masticator space infections
-mand 2nd and 3rd molars
-post extraction swelling of wisdom teeth extractions
-contaminated needle used from mandibulae block injection.
spread of infection from masticator space
-lateral pharyngeal space
-temporal space
-space of parotid gland
major sign and symptom of masticator space infection
trismus
the 2 spaces of the temporal space and what divides them
-deep temporal space/pouch
-superficial temporal space/pouch

temporalis muscle divides them
the deep temporal and superficial temporal spaces are continuous inferiorly with....(2)
-submasseteric space
-pterygomandibular space
origin of temporal space infection
spread from masticator space
spread of temporal space infection
to masticator space
Ludwig's Angina
bilateral infection of the sublingual and submandibular spaces-- majority arise from dental infection of mand molar and PM teeth
Buccal space
space between skin of cheek laterally and buccinator muscle medially.

Anteriorly: labial musculature
Posteriorly: pterygomandibular raphe

superiorly: zygomatic arch
inferiorly: lower border of mandible
origin of buccal space infection
-primarily from infected MAXILLARY molars/PM's whose apices are superior to buccinator attachment
-also from mandibular molars whose apices are inferior to buccinator attachment.
signs/symptoms of buccal space infection
swelling WITHOUT trismus
canine space
space deep to the levator labii superioris muscle and associated area around the leavtor anguli oris muscle.
Origin of canine space infections
maxillary canines which break through bone superior to origin of levator anguli oris muscle
signs/symptoms of canine space infection
-swelling in labial sulcus
-loss of nasolabial folds