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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Polygyny-
husband has more than one wife
Polyandry-
wife has more than one husband
Trobriand Islanders
kids uncle takes over the role of dad
Uncles kids are taken care of by the other kids dad.
family
2 or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption
Household
people who occupy the same housing unit or living quarters
Nuclear family
mom
dad
kids

what kind of family?
Extended family
Mom
dad
kids
cousins
uncles
aunts
grandmas
nanas

what kind of family?
Family of orientation
the family that you are born into

family you grew up with
Family of procreation
The family that you make
Marriage
a group’s approved mating arrangements, marked by a ritual
Mate selection
norms of who marries whom
Endogamy
marriage within own group

e.g. age group
Exogamy
Marriage outside of own group
Incest taboo
tells who we can't marry

e.g. family (aunts and uncles)
System of descent
Bilateral system
Patrilineal system
Matrilineal system
Bilateral system
track descent through by parents sides of the family
Patrilineal system
track descent from just the father's side of the family
Matrilineal system
track descent from just the mother's side of the family
inheritance
rights of __________ follow lines of descent
Patriarchy
authority vested in males
because it fufills basic needs
Why is family universal?
Functionalism viewpoint on family
Family is universal b/c it fulfills basic needs
Economic production
Socialization of children
Care of the sick and aged
Recreation
Sexual control
Reproduction
Functions of the incest taboo
Avoid role confusion
Exogamy
Extends social networks of bride and groom
Dysfunctions
Isolation of nuclear family
Emotional overload
Conflict theory
Gender and power
Power struggle over housework
Arlie Hochschild- “the second shift”
Affects marital relationship and wife’s self-concept
Men
engage in strategies of resistance
Waiting it out
Playing dumb
Needs reduction
Substitute offerings
Symbolic interactionist perspective
Gender and meanings of marriage
Closer husband and wife’s earnings, more likely share housework
Husband earns less than wife, does least amt. of housework
The family life cycle
Love and courtship in global perspective
Romantic love- 88% of societies
Role of love differs from one society to another
Sexual attraction and labels
Love and arranged marriage in IndiaMarriage
Love is socially channeled
Homogamy- tendency of people w/ similar characteristics to marry one another
Propinquity (spatial nearness)
94% of Americans marry someone from same racial background
Homogamy-
tendency of people w/ similar characteristics to marry one another
Childbirth
Education and income relationship
Marital satisfaction
Social class affects how couples adjust to arrival of children
Working class vs. middle class
Child rearing
3 of 5 U.S. mothers work for wages
Married vs. single mothers similar child care arrangements
Day care
Nannies
Social class- parents socialize their children into the norms of their work worlds
Birth order- tendencies
First vs. second or later born
The Empty Nest
Married couple’s domestic situation after the last child has left the home
Difficult time of adjustment for women?
Rubin found that women’s satisfaction generally increases when last child leaves the home
The not-so-empty nest
Prolonged education
Household costs
42% of all U.S. 24-29 year olds live w/ their parents (boomerang children)
Widowhood
Women more likely than men
Deal w/ “who am I” again
Social class
______ ______ is primary distinction in diversity in US families.
African american families
Upper vs. middle class
Poverty- men unemployed, have few skills, women likely single mothers
45% of families headed by women
Fictive kin- stretching of kinship
Marriage squeeze- imbalance in sex ratio
Latino families
Social class and country of origin significant
Cubans more likely headed by married couple than Puerto Rican families
Culture- language, religion, and family orientation
Machismo- emphasis on male strength and dominance
Asian American families
Structure almost identical to white families
80% married couples, 13% female-headed
20 countries and cultures
Nuclear family w/ Confucian values
More permissive than Anglos in child rearing
Native American families
Conflict- traditional values or assimilate
Permissive parenting
Elders play active role in family life
One-parent families
1970- 85% lived w/ both parents
2000- 69% lived w/ both parents
High divorce rate and increase in births to unmarried women
Strain and poverty- most one parent families headed by women
Kids more likely drop out of school, get arrested, have emotional problems
Cycle of poverty
Families w/out children
About 20% of married women do not give birth
Education
Race-ethnicity
Why remain childless by choice?
Not by choice- adoption, surrogate mothers, high tech reproduction
Blended families
Members were once part of other families
Gay and lesbian families
1989- Denmark first to legalize same sex marriage
2000- Vermont first legalized “gay unions”
Uneven distribution in U.S.
1/5th previously married to heterosexuals
Have children?
22% lesbian couples, 5% gay couples
Cohabitation
Adults living together in a sexual relationship w/out being married
Change in views on sexual morality
High divorce rate= marriage is fragile
8 X more common today than 30 yrs ago
Essential difference?
Substitute for, step towards, trial, coresidential dating
Trends in U.S. families
Postponing marriage
Cohabitation
Unmarried mothers
Grandparents raising grandchildren
Sandwich generation and elder care
Child rearing
3 of 5 U.S. mothers work for wages
Married vs. single mothers similar child care arrangements
Day care
Nannies
Social class- parents socialize their children into the norms of their work worlds
Birth order- tendencies
First vs. second or later born
The Empty Nest
Married couple’s domestic situation after the last child has left the home
Difficult time of adjustment for women?
Rubin found that women’s satisfaction generally increases when last child leaves the home
The not-so-empty nest
Prolonged education
Household costs
42% of all U.S. 24-29 year olds live w/ their parents (boomerang children)
Widowhood
Women more likely than men
Deal w/ “who am I” again
Social class
______ ______ is primary distinction in diversity in US families.
African american families
Upper vs. middle class
Poverty- men unemployed, have few skills, women likely single mothers
45% of families headed by women
Fictive kin- stretching of kinship
Marriage squeeze- imbalance in sex ratio
Latino families
Social class and country of origin significant
Cubans more likely headed by married couple than Puerto Rican families
Culture- language, religion, and family orientation
Machismo- emphasis on male strength and dominance
Asian American families
Structure almost identical to white families
80% married couples, 13% female-headed
20 countries and cultures
Nuclear family w/ Confucian values
More permissive than Anglos in child rearing
Native American families
Conflict- traditional values or assimilate
Permissive parenting
Elders play active role in family life
One-parent families
1970- 85% lived w/ both parents
2000- 69% lived w/ both parents
High divorce rate and increase in births to unmarried women
Strain and poverty- most one parent families headed by women
Kids more likely drop out of school, get arrested, have emotional problems
Cycle of poverty
Families w/out children
About 20% of married women do not give birth
Education
Race-ethnicity
Why remain childless by choice?
Not by choice- adoption, surrogate mothers, high tech reproduction
Blended families
Members were once part of other families
Gay and lesbian families
1989- Denmark first to legalize same sex marriage
2000- Vermont first legalized “gay unions”
Uneven distribution in U.S.
1/5th previously married to heterosexuals
Have children?
22% lesbian couples, 5% gay couples
Cohabitation
Adults living together in a sexual relationship w/out being married
Change in views on sexual morality
High divorce rate= marriage is fragile
8 X more common today than 30 yrs ago
Essential difference?
Substitute for, step towards, trial, coresidential dating
Trends in U.S. families
Postponing marriage
Cohabitation
Unmarried mothers
Grandparents raising grandchildren
Sandwich generation and elder care
Unmarried mothers
Industrialized nations experienced sharp increases in births to single women
Customs/values play large role
Grandparents raising grandkids
Skipped generation families
Parents are ill, homeless, incarcerated, addicted to drugs
Sandwich generation and elder care
Responsible for own kids and aging parents
Divorce
½ as many divorces are given each year as marriages performed
When look at entire pool, divorce rate is 2%
Varies by where you live and race-ethnicity
Symbolic interactionism and the misuse of statistics
Self-fulfilling prophecy