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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
EQUIVOCATION
THE FALLACY OF LETTING A WORD WITH MORE THAN ONE MEANING SLIP FROM ONE MEANING TO ANOTHER IN THE COURSE OF AN ARGUMENT
AMPHIBOLY
THE FALLACY (MISUNDERSTANDING) RESULTING FROM UNCLEAR GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION (DANGLING MODIFIERS)
FALLACY OF ACCENT
THE FALLACY OF MISINTERPRETATION CAUSED BY ACCENTING THE WRONG WORDS OR PHRASES
SPECIAL PLEADING
THE FALLACY OF SETTING FORTH ONE SIDE OF THE STORY AS IF IT WERE COMPLETE STORY, THUS IGNORING THE REAL ISSUE
ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
THE FALLACY OF DISCREDITING A MAN IN ORDER TO DISCREDIT HIS ARGUMENT; SOMETIMES MERE NAME-CALLING
ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
THE FALLACY OF ADDRESSING THE PREJUDICES OF LOCAL INTERESTS OF PEOPLE, AND STIRRING UP EMOTIONS FAVORABLE TO ONE'S ARGUMENT BY TELLING LISTENERS WHAT THEY WANT TO HEAR
ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
THE FALLACY OF ARGUING FOR THE AUTHORITY AS A MAN HAS IN HIS OWN FIELD AS THOUGH IT HELD EQUALLY IN ANOTHER FIELD
ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICARIDIAM
THE FALLACY APPEALING TO PITY RATHER THAN TO REASON
ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
THE FALLLACY APPEALING TO INTIMIDATION (EITHER BY THREAT OR FORCE) INSTEAD OF APPEALING TO REASON
ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
THE FALLACY OF ASSUMING THAT ANY FAILURE TO PROVE ONE SIDE OF AN ARGUMENT THEREBY ESTABLISHES THE OTHER SIDE
RATIONALIZATION
THE FALLACY OF GIVING RESPECTABLE REASONS INSTEAD OF REAL AND SOMEWHAT UNCONSCIOUS REASONS
FALSE DILEMMA
THE FALLACY OF STATING ONLY TWO ALTERNATIVES WHEN THERE MAY BE THREE OR MORE
COMPLEX QUESTION
THE FALLACY OF A QUESTION'S CONTAINING AND CONCEALING AN UNWARRANTED ASSUMPTION
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
THE FALLACY OF STATING AN ARGUMENT OF EXPLAINING A SITUATION SO BRIEFLY THAT MANY ASPECTS OF THE QUESTION ARE LEFT OUT
POST HO, ERGO PROPTER HOC
THE FALLACY OF ASSUMING THAT BECAUSE ONE EVENT HAPPENED AFTER ANOTHER, IT WAS CAUSED BY THAT OTHER
FAULTY CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM STATISTICS
THIS RESULTS FROM ONE'S HAVING PUT ONE'S FAITH IN STATISTICS BEFORE HAVING CAREFULLY CONSIDERED WHAT THEY DO NOT SAY
INADEQUATE SAMPLING
THE FALLACY OF ARRIVING AT A CONCLUSION BASED ON TOO FEW INSTANCES
FAULTY ANALOGY
THE FALLACY OCCURRING WHEN PARTICULAR SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TWO THINGS WE INFER A FURTHER OR MORE GENERAL SIMILARITY WHICH DOES NOT REALLY EXIST. FAULTY ANALOGY IS ESPECIALLY LIKELY TO APPEAR WHEN THE OBSERVED SIMILARITIES ARE SUPERFICIAL OR WHEN THEY ANALOGY IS BASED ON JUST A FEW SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THINGS WHICH HAVE MANY ASPECTS
RED HERRING
ATTEMPTING TO MISDIRECT THE DISCUSSION BY RAISING AN ESSENTIALLY UNRELATED POINT
SLANTING
SELECTING OR EMPHASIZING THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS YOUR CLAIM AND SUPPRESSING OR PLAYING DOWN OTHER EVIDENCE
SLIPPERY SLOPE
A SERIES OF INCREASINGLY UNACCEPTABLE CONSEQUENCES IN DRAWN
STRAW MAN
DIRECTING THE ARGUMENT AGAINST A CLAIM THAT NOBODY ACTUALLY HOLDS OR THAT EVERYONE AGREES IS VERY WEAK
CIRCULAR DEFINITION
THE DEFINITION INCLUDES THAT TERM BEING DEFINED AS A PART OF THE DEFINITION
BEGGING THE QUESTION
ARGUING THAT A CLAIM IS TRUE BY REPEATING THE CLAIM IN DIFFERENT WORDS. ALSO CALLED CIRCULAR REASONING