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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Straw Man
A weakened misrepresentation of an opponent's view. Depicts the opponent's position as mindless and weak.
reducing possibilities to only two.
"Be miserable or buy a BMW"
Begging the Question
The use of the claim as its own justification
"it's raining becase water if falling from the sky"
Slippery Slope
the prediction of catastrophe based on a series of links started by one particular act.
"Now they want us to start tucking in our shirts, next thing you know they'll be supervising our personal hygiene"
Abusive Ad Hominem
Sidetracks the issues by atacking te person.
"This guy can't teach; he's got terrible teeth"
Tu Quo Que
Attempts to discredit an rgument based on a person's hypocrisy
"Yeah, but officer haven't you ever rolled through a stop sign."
Question-Begging Epithet
Calls someone a name that implies a quality or fact that is not proved.
"a large gentleman sits down to eat at a buffet and a lady near him whispers, we'd better hurry before that hog eats everything left."
False Cause
Turns a coincidence or a correlation into a cause
"I got fired after i had that burrito- i'll never eat Mexican again."
Hasty Generalization
Concludes too much from too little
"This sandal uses a braided strap; it must have been made in India"
Sweeping Generalization
Misapplies a true principal to a situation that is exceptional.
"Pets are good for old folks. My grandma, who is allergic to cats, ought to get a cat to keep her company."
assumes that what is true of an individual in a group must be true of the entire group
"nick is really smart; his class must be the smart class"
assumes that what is true of the group as a whole must be true of each member
"Nick's class got the highest average on the final; he must have scored higher than i"
changes the meaning of a word or phrease in mid-discussion
"I'd give you my reasons, but you won't listen to reason, so i won't bother."
Complex Question
asks a question that assumes and so corners its respondent.
"When do you think you'll drop out of school?"
Appeal To Fear
Manipulates agreement by way of fear instead of cogent reason
"Mr. Summers, i think i deserve an A. My father's on the board and I'd hate to see your reputation turn sour here at Oaks."
Appeal to Pity
manipulates agreement by way of pity
"Mr. Summers, you can't give me a C. I've worked so hard. I have spent so many nights up late finishing your papers"
Band Wagon
Convinces by arguing an idea's popularity
"Thousands of moms can't be wrong: Tid is the choice of America"
Syntax of the sentence confuses the meaning of the sentence.
"Slow Children crossing"
Special Pleading
colors the language according to the arguers' perspective
"No, Jon is not dishonest; she's just generous with her answers"
Guilt By Association
uses bad reputations to discredit
"Yeah. that's a great idea, didnt Hitler say the same thing?"