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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abuse of a Slippery Slope (Ad Nauseum or Ad Absurdum)
Using an unqualified expert to strengthen your argument.
ex. Celebrity Spokesperson
Appeal to Authority (Ad Vercundiam)
Any threat to strengthen your argument.
ex. "If you don't do this, I'm gonna hit you!"
Appeal to Force (Ad Baculum)
To use pity or emotion to strengthen your argument.
ex. Guilt trip
Appeal to Emotions ( Ad Misericordiam)
To use peer pressure to win a case.
ex. "If you don't do this, no one will like you."
Appeal to Majority (Ad populum)
Having not proven something, therefore it must be false.
ex. No physical proof of God, therefore he doesn't exist.
Arguing from Ignorance (Ad ignorantium)
When the premise is atleast as questionable as the conclusion.
ex. Teachers are evil, Forslund is a teacher, therefore Forslund is evil.
Beggin the Question (Petito Principil)
To justify something just because it's new.
ex. Buying a new car just because it's new.
Change for change's sake (Argumentum ad Novitatem)
Having the conclusion reaffirm what the premise is saying.
ex. Why are you an idiot? Cuz you don't do your homework. Why don't you do your homework? Cuz you're an idiot.
Circular Reasoning (Circulus In Demonstrando)
Argument structured in a way that the premise makes the conclusion impossible.
Contradicory Premises
A close-ended question to a complex problem
ex. A reporter asking, "is it true?"
The cross-examiner's Fallacy (Plurium Interrogationum)
To take a phrase and make it what you want.
ex. Bill Clinton and 'sexual relations'
Semantic Fallacy (Quaternio Terminorum)
An unfair comparison
ex. Liking Baltimore is like getting hit on the head every day.
False Analogy
Mixing something coincidental when it's not
ex. The lottery numbers on Lost coinciding with bad luck
Post Hoc
Giving two negative options onto your opponent
ex. Either eat your peas or do your homework
False Dilemma
TO focus on the cause of the argument rather than the argument itself
ex. Abortion. You shouldn't care about it if you're not pregnant.
Genetic Fallacy (Ad Personam)
To accuse someone of something that you do yourself
ex. Well, what about you?
Glass House Fallacy (Tu QuoQue)
Being guilty of aa crime without doing anything
ex. People in the slums are all bad
Guilt by Association
A rush to judgement
ex. Automatically assuming something that you're not sure is true.
Hasty Generalization (Dicto Secundum)
Drawing a conclusion from something that never happened
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
Doing something just because it's tradition.
ex. The movie "The Lottery"
Nostalgic Justification (Argumentum Ad Antiqatem)
An attack made against your opponent's personal qualities.
ex. You egghead!
Personal Attack (Ad Hominem)
Saying something false about your opponent before they can respond.
ex. "He's a liar!"
Poisoning the Well (Ad Auditorem)
Distracting someone from a weak argument
ex. The magician with the sexy assisstant.
Red Herring
Changing the argument to make it stronger
ex. "He said 20 seconds!" 'He said 15' "Who says 15 is enough, anyways.."
Ad Hoc
Setting your opponent up for a weak argument
Straw Man
Leaving out important details
ex. Smoking ads
Suppressed evidence
General statment that is easily proven wrong
Unqualified Generalization (Dicto Simpliciter)
A conlusion that is unsupported by evidence
Unsupported Conclusion (Non Sequitur)