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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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motion within the transverse plane about a longitudinal (vertical) axis
rotation
motion within the coronal/frontal plane about an AP axis
side bending
motion within the sagittal plane about a transverse axis
flexion/extension
separates top half of body from bottom
transverse plane
separates the right half of the body from left
sagittal
separates the front half of the body from the back
coronal/frontal
transverse axis
travels from right side of body to left
anterior/posterior axis
travels form the front of the body to the back (think of rod going thru umbilicus)
longitudinal or vertical axis
travels from your head to your toes
passive motion testing
quantity of motion
pt moves self
active motion testing
quality of motion
dr moves pt
end range of joint motion limited by bones, ligaments, tendons
anatomical barrier
limit of end range of motion produced by the patient
physiologic barrier
abnormal limited motion within the physiologic range altered by somatic dysfunction
restrictive/pathologic barrier
ligament motion beyond anatomical motion
sprain
tendon motion beyond anatomic range
strain
bone motion beyond anatomic range
fracture
1874
"i flung to the breeze the banner of osteopathy"
1892
first class at American School of Osteophathy Kirksville MO
1896
Vermont first state to license DOs
1910
Flexner report
commissioned by A. Carnegie
standardized medican schooling
1917
AT Still dies
1900
CCOM opens
1996
AZCOM opens
1918
spanish influenza, osteopathy reduces morbidity/mortality
1962
DOs exchange degrees for MD in CA
2001
LA accepts COMLEX
principle I
group mechanics
sidebending/rotation opposite direction
vertebral body rotates towards convexity
principle II
single segment dysfunction
sidebending/rotation to same side
spine is non-neutral-prefers flexion or extension
vertebra rotates towards concavity
principle III
initiatin gmotion of a vert. segment in any plane of motion will modify movement of that segment in other planes
naming type II dysfunctions
rotation comes first
naming type I dysfunction
sidebending comes first
C0/C1 (O/A)
sidebending/rotation occur in opposite directions in non-neutral position
C1-C2 (A/A)
motion is rotation only
C2-C7
generally type II dysfunctions
sacrum
acts like type I--opposite directions for rotation/sidebending
reference point for naming dysfunctions
anterior and superior aspect of vert. segment
approximation of muscle's origin and insertion
concentric
(origin/insertion come closer together)
lengthening of muscle during contraction due to external force
eccentric
contraction that results in approximation of muscle's origin and insertion; patients force greater than operators
isotonic
muscle contraction that results in approximation of muscle's origin and insertion with equal operator/patient force
isometric
muscle contraction against resistance while forcing muscle to lengthen
isolytic *eccentric
Direct OMM
moves into restrictive barrier
indirect OMM techniques
moves away from the restrictive barrier
HVLA
direct
muscle energy
direct
counterstrain
indirect
myofascial release
direct or indirect
cranial
indirect of adults
direct for infants
facilitated positional release
indirect
still
indirect to direct
important vertebral ligaments
anterior longitudinal
posterior longitudinal
ligamentum flavum
interspinous ligament
supraspinous ligament
angle of louis
attachment of rib 2, level of T4
xyphoid process
rib 7, T9
sternal notch
T2
esophageal hiatus
T10
prevents gastroesophageal reflux
inferior vena cava
T8
opening for aorta
T12
respiratory distress
recruits scalenes, intercostals, serratus anterior and posterior, and quadratus lumborum
erector spinae
extend vert. column
Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
transversospinal group
extend cert column and rotate to opposite side
rotatores, multifidus, semispinalis
phrenic nerve
C3, 4, 5
innervates diaphragm
cisterna chyli
sub-diaphragmantic lymphatic drainage
thoracic duct
supra-diaphragmatic lymphatic drainage
type I shortcut
G1NO
group
type 1
neutral
opposite sides S/R
pump handle
upper thorax (~ribs 1-7)
ribs rise up and down
bucket handle
lower thorax (~ribs 7-10)
ribs lift up and away
caliper
ribs 11/12 have only one small motion
thoracic motion
mainly rotational
primary group of respiration
diaphragm
**others = secondary
T1-T3
spinous process at level of transverse process
T4-T6
spinous process extends 1/2 level below transverse process
T7-T9
spinous process one full segment below transverse process
T10
follows T7-9
T11
follows T4-6
T12
follows T1-3
posterior longitudinal ligament
limits posterior translation of segment
ligamentum flavum
hypertrophy contributes to spinal stenosis
iliolumbar ligament
TP of L4/L5 to iliac crest
rotatores
mostly proprioception/nerve fibers
erector spinae
extends with b/l contraction

sinebends with unilateral contraction

no rotation
quadratus lumborum
for lumbar sidebending

from iliac crest to 12th rib
psoas
strongest muscle of the body
psoas syndrome
bubble butt

prolonged positions that shorten the muscle
sciatic
L4-S3

impinged by tight piriformis muscle

frequent source of pain
lumbar disc and body height
discs account for 1/4-1/3 of vertebral height
discs and age
water content lost = loss of height
herniated lumbar discs
lateral and posterior

L4/L5 or L5/S1

nucleus pulosus protrudes
inomminate bone
ilium
ischium
pubis
fuse by age 20-23
ischium
posterior, inferior part of inomminate
pubis
pubic symphysis-fibrocartilagenous joint
pubic tubercle
attachment of ilioinguinal ligament
iliolumbar ligament
iliac crest to L4/L5 and sacrum
sacroiliac joint
synovial
no muscle attachements/no muscle specific for motion
sacrilization
L5 fuses with sacrum
lumbarization
S1 unfused from sacrum, acts as 6th lumbar vertebrae
bat wing deformity
atypically large transverse process of L5
-->false joint with sacrum and/or ilia
facet trophism
unequal size and or facing of facet joint
spondylollisthesis grade 1
0-25%
spondylolisthesis grade 2
25-50%
spondylolisthesis grade 3
50-75%
spondylolisthesis grade 4
75-100% displacement
spondylosis
general term/degenerative changes to discs
about arthritic changes
pars interarticularis
fractures with spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis
main motion of lumbar spine
flexion and extension
causes of psoas syndrome
appendicitis
ureteral calculi
sigmoid colon disease
prostate cancer
salpingitis
ureter infection
PSIS
S2
positive standing flexion test
innominate diagnosis must be named on that side
side of + standing flex. test = side of dysfunction
hypertonic iliopsoas muscle
can lead to L1-L2 disfunction
ischial tuberosities
diagnostic tool for assessment of shears
lumbar facets in flexion
more open
lumbar facets in extension
joints more closed