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223 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
geography
the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth
absolute location
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature, such as a city, is found
relative location
describes a place in comparison to other places around it
hemishphere
each half of the globe
equator
the imaginary line that dicides the north and south halves
prime meridian
the imaginary line dividing the earth east and west
latitude
imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator
longitude
imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles
globe
three-dimensional representation of the earth
marp
two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth's surface
catographer
a mapmaker
map projection
a way of drawing earth's surface by presenting a round Earth on flat paper
topographic map
representation of natural and man-made features on the earth
Landsat
actually a series of saltellites that orbit more than 100 miles above earth
Systems (GIS)"
stores information about the world in a digital database
continent
landmasses above water or earth, fit together like a huge jigsaw puzzle
solar system
consists of the sun and nine known planets, as well as other celestial bodies that orbit the sun
core
the center of the earth and is made up of iron and nickel
mantle
surrounds the core, and has several layers
magma
molten rock, can form in the mantle and rise through the crust
crust
thin layer of rock at the earth's surface
atmosphere
surrounds the earth with a layer of gases
lithosphere
includes the crust and uppermost mantle
hydrosphere
made up of the water elements on the earth
biosphere
the part of the earth where plants and animals live
continental drift
the theory created by Alfred Wegener in 1912 that explans why the crusts all fit together perfectly
hydrologic cycle
the continous circulation of water betweent he atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth
drainage basin
an area drained by a major river and its tributaries
ground water
the water held in pores of rock
water table
can rise or fall depending on the amount of precipitation in the region
landform
naturally formed features on the surface of the earth
continental shelf
the edge of a continent to the deep part of the ocean
relief
the difference in elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point
topography
the combination of the surgace shape and composition of the landforms and their distribution in a region
tectonic plate
enormous moving pieces of the earth's lithosphere
fault
fractures in the earth's crust
earthquake
violent movement of the earth
seismograph
a special device can detect earthquakes
epicenter
the point directly above the focus on the earth's surface is the epicenter
Richter scale
uses information collected by a seismograph to determine the relative strengh of an earthquake
tsunami
caused by an earthquake; a giant wave in the ocean
volcano
where materials pour out of a crack in the earth's surface
lava
mama that has reached the earth's surface
ring of fire
a zone around the trim of the Pacific Ocean
weathering
refers to physical and chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface
sediment
small pieces of rock
mechanical weathering
procedsses that break rock into smaller pieces
chemical weathering
"occurs when rock is changed into a new substance as a result of interaction between the elements in air or water and the
erosion
occurs when weathered material is moved by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity
delta
fan-like landform created by deposited sediment
loess
wind blown silt and clay
glacier
a large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity
glaciation
changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers
moraine
rocks left behind by a glacier may forma ridge or a hill
humus
the amount of organic material in the soil
solstice
the day when the sun's rays shine diretly overhead at noon
equinox
the days and nights all over the world are equal in length
weather
the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
climate
the term for weather conditions at a particular location over a long period of time
precipitation
falling water droplets in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail
rain shadow
the land on the leeward side
hurricane
storms that form over warm, tropical ocean waters
typhoon
hurricanes in asia
tornado
a powerful funnelshaped column of spiraling air
blizzard
a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility
drought
a long period of time without rain or with very minimal rainfall
convection
the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motino of the air
El Nino
a natural change in the climate
greenhouse effect
the layer of gases released by the burning of coal and pretroleum traps some solar energy
tundra
the flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean
permafrost
the subsoil is constantly frozen
ecosystem
an interdependent community of plants and animals
biome
the ecosystem of a region
deciduous
forest regions with trees which have broadleaf trees
rain forest
located in the tropical zone and is covered with a heavy concentration of broadleaf trees
coniferous
needleleaf trees are found here
savanna
the flat, grassy mostly treless plains
steppe
praries in the temperate grasslands
culture
the total knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group
society
a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identy, and a culture
ethnic group
used to refer to a specific group that shares a language, custons, and a common heritage
innovation
taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need
diffusion
spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior
cultural hearth
a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures
acculturation
occurs when a societ changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation
dialect
versions of a language
religion
consists of a belief ina supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe
birthrate
the number of live births per thousand population
fertility rate
shows the average number of children a women of childbearing years would have in their lifetime
mortality rate
the number of deaths per thousand people
infant mortality rate
shows the number of deaths among infants under age one per thousand live births
rate of natural increase
the difference between the birthrate and mortality rate
population pyramid
a graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population
push-pull factors
reasons for migrating
population density
to undertand how heavily populated an area is, geographers use a figure called population density
carrying capacity
the number of organisms a piece of land can support
state
describes an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs
nation
refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
nation-state
a nation and a state occupy the same territory
democracy
citizens hold political power, either directly or through representatives
monarchy
a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies
dictatorship
an individual or group holds complete political power
commmunism
"in this government and economic system, nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the
landlocked
a country surrounded by other land and with no direct outlet to the sea
urban geography
the study of how people use space in cities
city
they are centers of business and culture
suburb
political units touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city
metroplitan area
the city, its suburbs, and exurbs link together
urbanization
the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result
central business district (CBD)
the core of a city is almost always based on commercial activity
economy
consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people
economic system
the way people produce and exchange goods and services
command economy
"production of goods and services is determined by a central governmnent, which usually owns the means of production.
market economy
production of goods and services is determined by the demand of the consumers.
natural resources
materials on or in the earth
infrastructure
"consists of the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportaion
per capita income
the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
GNP
gross antional product, the total value of all goods and serviceds producced by a country over a year or some other specified period of time
GDP
gross domestic product, all the total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time
appalachian mountains
one of the two major mountain chains in the United States and Canada
great plains
largely treeless area that continues the ascent to about 4,000 feet
canadian shield
rocky, mainly flat area covers nearly 2 milion square miles around Hudson Bay
rocky mountains
the other major mountain system of the United States and Canada
great lakes
Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior
mackenzie river
Canada's longest River
permafrost
permanently frozen ground
prevailing westerlies
winds that blow from west to east in the middle of the latitudes
everglades
a huge swampland that covers some 4,000 square miles
nomad
people who move from place to place
Beringia
a land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska
St. Lawrence Seaway
North America's most important deepwater ship route
lock
sections of waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered
migration
movement of peoples within the United States
Columbian Exchange
the coming of the Europeans
Louisiana Purchase
the vast plains region between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains
frontier
the free, open land
suburb
surrounds cities
representative democracy
where the people rule through elected representatives
export
which are goods sold to another country
free enterprise
"in this economic system, private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for
service industry
any kind of economic activity that produces a service rather than a product
postindustrial industry
one where manufacturing no longer plays a dominant role
multinational
where corporations engage in business worldwide
New England
the northern area where six states inhabit
megalopolis
a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together
the Midwest
contains 12 states in the north-central United States
the South
covers one fourth of the land area of the United Statesk
metropolitan area
large cities and nearby suburbs and towns
the West
far flung subregion sonsisting of 13 states
province
political units touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city
Dominion of Canada
was created in 1867
confederation
a political union
parliamentary government
a system in which legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature caleld a parliament
prime minister
head of a government
First Nations
started trading with Suropean fisherman along the northern Atlantic coast
metis
people of mixed French and native heritage
reserves
public land set aside for a certain kind of people
terrorist
"the unlawful use of, or threated use of, force or violence against individuals or property for the purpose of intimidating or causing
global network
worldwide interconnected grouop
coalition
an alliance of nations to fight the war on terror
biological weapon
refer to bacteria and virus that can be used to harm or kill people, animals, or plants
urban sprawl
poorly planned development
infrastructure
consists of the basic facilities, services, and machinery needed for a communitty to function
smart growth
the efficient use and conservation of land and other resources
sustainable community
communites where residents could live and work
Andes Mountains
In the South American Continent
llanos
vast grassy, greeless areas used for livestock and grazing
cerrado
savannas with flag terrain and moderate rainfall that make them suitable for farming
pampas
areas of grasslands and rich soil
Orinoco River
winds through the northern part of South America, mainly in Venezuela
Amazon River
flows about 4,000 miles from east to west emptying in the Atlantic Ocean
Parana River
originates in the highlands of Southern Brazil
rain forest
dense forests made up of different species of trees
slash-and-burn
technique used by the natives to clear land for farming
terraced farming
an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes
push factors
factors that "push" people to leave rural areas
pull factors
factors that "pull" people to urban areas
infrastructure
includes things such as swers, transportation, electricity, and housing
Spanish conquest
Hernando Cortes conquered a lot of area
Tenochitlan
the great Aztec city, now the sitye of Mexico City
Part (PRI)"
helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
mestizo
people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage
maquiladoras
factories in Mexico that assemble importated materials into finished products that are then exported mostly to the United States
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement
cultural hearth
a place from which important ideas spread
America"
the whold region declared its independence from Mexico
Panama Canal
cuts through the land bridge and connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
calypso
music begane in Trinidad
raggae
developed in Jamaica in the 1960s
informal economy
takes place outside official channels, without benefits or protection for workers
Inca
descendants of people who came across a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska and eventually crossed the Isthmus of Panama
Quechua
language of the Inca
Treaty of Tordesillas
Portugal gained control over the land that became present-day Brazil
Carnival
people in costumes ride on floats through the streets in Rio de Janeiro
samba
a Brazilian dance with African influences
capoeira
a martial art and dance that developed in Brazil from African origins
biodiversity
its wide range of plant and animal species
deforestation
cutting down and clearing away trees
global warming
prevents heat from escaping into space
deby-for-nature swap
government tries to presrve the rain forests
oligarchy
not democratic
junta
run by the gernals
caudillo
a military dictator or political boss is in control
land reform
the process of breaking up large landholdings and giving portions of the land to land-poor peasant farmers
fjord
U-shaped valleyes that connect to the sea
uplands
hills or very low mountains
meseta
other uplands border mountainous areas
mistral
cold, dry wind from the north
polder
Land that is reclaimd by draining
terpen
seaworkds that include the high earthern platforms
ljsselmeer
the fresh water lake that is left behind
Crusades
a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims
Belelux
influened y Germany and France
feudalism
political system in which powerful lords owned most of the land
nationalism
belief that people should be loyal to their nation
Nordic countries
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,m and Sweden
Silicon Glen
the section of Scotland btween Glasgow and Edinburgh
balkanization
the term refers to the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
satellite nation
nations dominated by another country
anti-Semitism
discrimniation against Jewish people
Slobodan Milosevic
tried to inrease Serbia's power over the rest of yugoslavia
KLA
began to carry out attacks against Serbian Officials (Kosovo Liberation Army)
cyanide
a deadly poison flowed into the Tisza River in Hungary