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24 Cards in this Set

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How does Absorption occur?
ABSORPTION OCCURS WHEN MEDICATION MOVES FROM THE SITE OF ADMINISTRATION INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.
What is Absorption?
THE TAKING UP OF FLUIDS OR OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SKIN, MUCOUS SURFACES OR ABSORBENT VESSELS.
How does the Route of Administration affects Absorption?
1)ORAL MEDICATIONS ARE ABSORBED THE SLOWEST.

2)SUBLINGUAL IS FASTER THAN ORAL.

3)INJECTABLE MEDICATIONS ARE ABSORBED FASTER AND MORE COMPLETELY THAN ORAL MEDICATION.

4)INHALED MEDICATIONS ARE ABSORBED RAPIDLY.
What is Sublingual?
MEDICATION PLACED UNDER THE TONGUE.
How does a Form of an Oral Meddication affect how fast it is absorbed?
1)ORAL MEDICATION OFTEN MUST BE MIXED WITH FLUIDS TO BE ABSORBED.

2)LIQUID MEDICATION ABSORB MORE RAPIDLY THAN SOLIDS.

3)SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS AND CAPSULES ABSORBED UNTIL THEY REACH THE INTESTINE.
How does a Chemical Composition of a medication determine wheather it will be absorbed in the Stomach or the Intestine?
1)ACIDIC MEDICATIONS ARE ABSORBED IN THE STOMACH OR THE INTESTINE. (EXAMPLE: ASPIRIN)

2)AIKALINE MEDICATIONS ARE ABSORBED IN THE SMALL INTESTINE (EXAMPLE: QUINIDANE)
How does it work when the Higher the Dosage, the more Rapidly the medication is absorbed?
1)DOSAGE IS USUALLY CALCULATED BY BODY WEIGHT.

2)CHANGES IN THE BODY WEIGHT MAY REQUIRE THAT A DOSAGE OF MEDICATION BE ADJUSTED TO ELICIT THE DESIRED AFFECTS.

A)ORAL MEDICATION USUALLY ABSORB FASTER IF THE STOMACH IS EMPTY.
B)ABSORPTION MAY BE DELAYED BY FOOD.
C)FOOD MAY PREVENT SOME MEDICATION FROM BEING ABSORBED. (EXAMPLE: MIL WITH TETRACYCLINES)

3)DECREASED MOVEMENT OR THE ESPHAGUS AND STOMACH MUSCLES.

4)ONE MEDICATION MAY DELAY OR PREVENT ANOTHER FROM BEING ABSORBED. (EXAMPLE: ANTACIDS WITH TETRACYCLINES, ANTACIDS WITH IRON).

5)FLUIDS CONSUMED WITH ORAL MEDICATIONS INCREASE THE RATE OF ABSORPTION.
How does Distribution DO?
IT TAKES THE MEDICATION THAT IS CARRIED TO BODY CELLS THROUGH THE BLOODSTREAM.
What is Distribution?
TO DIVIDE AND DISPENSE IN PORTIONS.
How does Distribution work in the body?
A)WHEN A MEDICATION IS CIRCULATING FREE IN THE BLOODSTREAM, IT IS CALLED BIO-AVAILABLE OR FREE MEDICATION.

B)SOME MEDICATIONS BECOME BOUND TO THE PROTEIN IN BLOOD PLASMA. WHEN THE MEDICATION IS PROTEIN-BOUND, IT IS NOT BIO-AVAILABLE, BUT IS STORED IN THE BODY FOR FUTURE USE.
(1)AS A FREE MEDICATION MOVES INTO CELLS FROM THE BLOODSTREAM, MORE OF THE PROTEIN BOUND MEDICATION BECOMES BIO-AVAILABLE.
(2)PROTEIN-BOUND MEDICATIONS REMAIN IN THE BODY LONGER AND THEREFORE HAVE A LONGER LASTING EFFECT.

C)HALF LIFE OF A MEDICATION, THE TIME IT TAKES HALF OF THE MEDICATION TO LEAVE THE BLOODSTREAM.
(1)IF THE HALF-LIFE IS TWO HOURS,THEN 50 PERCENT OF THE MEDICATION WILL BE GONE FROM THE BLOODSTREAM IN TWO HOURS.
(2)THE SHORTER THE HALF-LIFE, THE MORE OFTEN A MEDICATION MUST BE GIVEN TO MAINTAIN A CONSTANT ACTION.

D)MEDICATION ARE NNOT ABSORBED EQUALLY BY ALL TYPES OF CELLS
(1)A MEDICATION IS RECEIVED INTO A CELL THROUGH ITS RECEPTOR SITE.
(2)MIRACLE AND FAT CELLS ACCEPT AND ACCUMLATE MANY MEDICATIONS.
(3)BRAIN CELLS ARE RECEPTIVE TO FEW MEDICATIONS. (FOR EXAMPLE: PENICILLIN ENTERS BRAIN CELLS VERY SLOWLY.

E)HOW THE BODY DISTRIBUTES MEDICATION MAY CHANGE WITH AGE DUE TO SEVERAL FACTORS SUCH AS:
(1)WHEN THERE IS LESS PROTEIN IN THE BLOOD FOR PROTEIN-BINDING MEDICATIONS, A SMALLER DOSAGE IS REQUIRED.
(2)THERE MAY BE A GREATER AMOUNT OF BODY FOR PRESENT TO ABSORB MEDICATIONS.
(3)HEART DISEASE MAY CAUSE EDEMA OR SWELLING - MEDICATIONS CAN BECOME TRAPPED IN THESE FLUIDS AND BE UNAVAILABLE TO THE CELLS.
What is the process by which a substance is changed into a form that is more easily excreted by the body?
METABOLISM OR BIOTRANSFORMATION
How does Metabolism or Biotranformation occur and work?
A)MOST MEDICATIONS ARE METABOLIZED BY THE LIVER.
B)KIDNEYS, LUNGS, AND INTESTINES ALSO HELP METABOLIZE MEDICATIONS.
C)SOME MEDICATIONS CAN BE EXCRETED UNCHANGED, BUT MOST MUST BE METABOLIZED.
D)DIFFERENT MEDICATIONS ARE METABOLIZED AT DIFFERENT RATES.
E) IF METABOLISM IS DECREASED, MEDICATION WILL ACCUMLATE IN THE BLOOD AND CELLS.
F)IF METABOLISM IS INCREASED, MORE MEDICATION WILL BEREQUIRED TO PRODUCE THE SAME EFFECT (TOLERANCE).
G)THE AGE OF THE RESIDENT AFFECTS THE METABOLIC RATE.
H)ADVERSE EFFECTS WILL APPEAR MAINLY IN THE LIVER AND KIDNEYS.
What is the process by which a medication is eliminated from the body?
EXCRETION
Excretion occurs and works in what way in the body?
A)MOST ORAL AND PAREUTERAL MEDICATIONS ARE EXCRETED BY THE KIDNEYS THROUGH THE URINE.

(1)SOME MEDICATIONS ARE EXCRETED IN THEIR ORIGINAL FORM, AND ARE CHANGED BY METABOLISM BEFORE EXCRETION.
(2)ALL MEDICATIONS EXCRETED BY THE KIDNEYS ARE DISSOLVED IN THE URINE RELATIVE TO THE AMOUNT OF FLUID INTAKE.

B)SOME ORAL MEDICATIONS ARE EXCRETED BY THE INTESTINES THROUGH THE FECES.

C)INHALANT MEDICATIONS, SUCH AS ETHER, ARE EXCRETED BY THE LUNGS THROUGH BREATHING.
What other Factors may Affect Effectiveness of Medication?
A)THE AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IS THOUGHT TO AFFECT THE RARE OF MEDICATION ACTION.

B)CHRONIC ILLNESS, SUCH AS DIABETES AND HEART FAILURE, MAY CHANGE THE BODY'S RESPONSE TO MEDICATION.

C)PAIN AND ANXIETY MAY INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF MEDICATION REQUIRED TO BRING ABOUT A DESIRED AFFECT.

D)OTHER EMOTIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS WORRY, FEAR AND SORROW, MAY CHANGE THE AMOUNT OF MEDICATION REQUIRED.

E)OTHER CHEMICALS PRESENT IN THE BODY MAY AFFECT THE POTENCY OF A MEDICATION. (EXAMPLE: ALCOHOL DECREASES THE EFFECT OF SOME ABTIBIOTICS BUT INCREASES THE EFFECT OF TRANQUILIZERS, SUCH AS VALIUM AND LIBRIUM.
What medication interactions can have an unpredictable result, sometimes a greater effect and sometimes less, What may cause a minor side effect or the side effect that may be of a greater magnitude thus causing an adverse effect?
A)AN EXAMPLE OF SUCH AN EFFECT OF A MEDICATION WOULD BE AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO A MEDICATION. (EXAMPLE: LEVAQUIN, WHICH IS USED TO TREAT PNEUMONIA, MAY CAUSE SEIZURES.

B)ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A MEDICATION HAVING A SIDE EFFECT WHICH COULD ESCALATE TO AN ADVERSE EFFECT IS LASIX. LASIX IS USED AS A DIURETIC FOR EDEMA (SWELLING), BUT MAY CAUSE THE RESIDENT TO EXCRETE A LARE VOLUME OF K+ (POTASSIUM) WHICH COULD LEAD TO A CARDIOVASCULAR DEFICIT.

C)MEDICATIONS THAT ARE CONTRAINDICATED WHEN USED IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER MEDICATIONS CAN CAUSE ADVERSE REACTIONS. (EXAMPLE: PREDNISONE (CORTICOSTEROID) IS CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE WITH A RESIDENT WHO HAD HAD A SYSTEMIC REACTION TO THE MEDICATION IN THE PAST OR WHO HAS A SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTION).
What are the Factors to Influence the Effectiveness of Medications in the Elderly?
A)FAILURE OF ELDERLY PERSONS TO TAKE MEDICATIONS AS ORDERED CAN CAUSE AN UNPREDICTABLE EFFECT.

(1) THE RESIDENT MAY REFUSE TO TAKE A CERTAIN MEDICATION. IF SO
A)THE LICENSED NURSE MUST BE NOTIFIED

B)NEW ORDERS FROM THE PHYSICIAN MAY NEED TO BE OBTAINED IN RESPONSE TO THE REFUSAL.

C)TECHNIQUES TO ENCOURAGE A RESIDENT TO TAKE THE MEDICATION AND AVOID REFUSALS SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED. SUCH TECHNIQUES INCLUDE.
(1)EXPLAIN TO THE RESIDENT THE IMPORTANCE TO TAKING THE MEDICATION AS PRESCRIBED AS WELL AS POTENTIAL NEGATIVE OUTCOMES OF REFUSAL.
(2)ENCOURAGE RESIDENT TO COOPERATE, OFFER WITH FOOD OR FLUID OF CHOICE.
(3)DO NOT FORCE RESIDENT TO TAKE MEDICATION, OFFER TO RETURN LATER.
(4)CALL NURSE AND FOLLOW HIS/HER INSTRUCTIONS.
(5)DOCUMENT INCIDENT AS REQUIRED BY FACILITY PROCEDURE.
What are the Factors Related to Aging WHich Influence Medication Effectiveness.
1)DECREASE IN LUNG CAPACITY
2)DETERIORATION OR MUSCLE AND NERVE CELLS
3)LOSS OF MUSCLE SIZE
4)INCREASE IN BRITTLENESS OF BONES
5)INCREASE IN BODY FAT
6) DECREASE IN BLOOD FLOW TO INTERNAL ORGANS
7)DECREASE IN KIDNEY FUNCTIONS
8)DECREASE IN THE ABILITY TO RECOVER FROM ILLNESS.
What happens to MEDICATION OF Reception in the body?
1)MEDICATION IS INTRODUCED INTO THE BODY.

2)METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL, RECTAL, INHALATION,PARENTERAL, SKIN.
What happens to MEDICATION OF Absorption in the body?
1)MEDICATION IS TRANSFERRED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.
2)WHERE IT HAPPENS STOMACH AND INTESTINES LUNGS, CELLS.
What happens to MEDICATION OF Distribution in the body?
1)MEDICATION IS CARRIED BY THE BLOOD TO BODY CELLS.
2)WHERE IS HAPPENS BLOODSTREAM
What happens to MEDICATION OF Metabolism in the body?
1)MEDICATION IS BROKEN DOWN TO SUBSTANCES THAT CAN BE EXCRETED BY THE KIDNEYS.
2)WHERE IT HAPPENS LIVER
WHAT HAPPENS TO MEDICATION OF EXCRECTIONS IN THE BODY?
1)EXCESS MEDICATION AND WASTE PRODUCTS ARE ELIMINATED BY THE BODY
2)WHERE IT HAPPENS KIDNEYS, INTESTINES, LUNGS.
What haooens to Medication in the body?
1)RECEPTION
2)ABSORPTION
3)DISTRIBUTION
4)METABOLISM
5)EXCRETION