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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NT in anxiety
inc NE
dec GABA, serotonin
NT in depression
dec NE, serotonin
NT in Alzheimer's dementia
dec ACh
NT in Huntington's disease
dec Ach, GABA
NT in Schizophrenia
inc Dop
NT in Parkinson's
dec Dop
unaware that one is ill
unable to locate one's own body parts
body seems unreal or dissociated
Order of loss in orientation
1 Time
2 Place
3 Person
Anterograde amnesia
can't remember after CNS insult
Retrograde amnesia
can't remember before CNS insult
Korsakoff's amnesia
classic anterograde amnesia
thiamine deficiency --> bilal destruction of mammillary bodies
seen in alcohols
which is worse: substance dependence or substance abuse
7 signs of substance dependence (only 3 have to be met)
Significant energy spent obtaining
Substance in large amts/long time
Persistent desire to cut back
Important activities reduced
Continued use despite dangers
4 signs of substance abuse (only 1 needed)
Use so can't fulfill obligations at work, school, or home
Use in hazardous situations
Legal problems
Use despite persistent problems
Disinhibition, emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, blackouts. GGT noted.
OH intox
tremor, tachycardia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, seizures, DT, tremulousness, agitation, hallucinations
OH withdrawal
CNS depression, N/V, constipation, pupillary constriction, seizures
opioid intox
piloerection, anxiety, insomnia, dilated pupils
opioid withdrawal
psychomotor agitation, pupillary dilation, euphoria, cardiac arrhythmias, delusions, hallucinations
amphetamines intox
euphoria, psychomotor agiation, pupillary diation, tactile hallucinations, paranoid ideations, sudden cardiac death
cocaine intox
post use crash
amphetamines and cocaine
belligerence, vertical and horizontal nystagmus, psychosis
visual hallucinations, flashbacks
euphoria, paranoid delusions, social withdrawal, hallucinations
recurrence of intox sxs due to reabsorption in GI tract; sudden onset of severe, random, homicidal violence
withdrawal in PCP
low safety margin, respiratory depression
anxiety, seizures, delirium, life-threatening CV collapse
barb withdrawal
greater safety margin. amnesia, ataxia, somnolence, minor resp depression, addictive with OH
rebound anxiety, seizures, tremor, insomnia
benzo withdrawal
restlessness, insomnia, increased diuresis, muscle twitching, cardiac arrhyth
H/A, lethargy, depression, wt gain
caffeine withdrawal
restlessness, insomina, anxiety, arrthy
irritability, H/A, anxiety, wt gain, craving
nicotine withdrawal
tx of alcoholism
disulfiram, supportive tx, Alcoholics anonymous
(-) effects of OH
toxic effects in brain
forms adducts with proteins and nucleic acids
acetate product leads to fatty liver
increased NADH/NAD inhibits gluconeogenesis
delirium tremens
what is it
life-threatening OH withdrawal syndrome that peaks 2-5 days after last drink
sxs: autonomic system hyperactivity, psychosis, confusion
tx: benzons
8 complications of alcoholism
alocholic hep and cirrhosis
dilated CM
peripheral neuropathy
cerebellar degernation
wk syndrome,
testicular atrophy and hyperestrinism
mallory-weiss syndrome
alcoholic cirrhosis
micronodular cirrhosis;
sxs: jaundice, hypoalbuminemia, coagulation factor deficiencies, portal HTN (peripheral edema, ascites, encephalopathy, neurologic like asterixis and flapping tremor, esophageal varices)
sxs in WK syndrome
Wernicke's: confusion, ophthalmopelgia, ataxia
Korsakoff's: confabulation, memory loss, personality change
Mallory-Weiss syndrom
longitudinal lacerations at GE j(x) caused by excessive vomiting; painful
track marks (needle sticks in veins)
heroin addiction
for heroin detox or long-term maintenance
waxing and waning level of consciousness; develops rapidly
delirium (impaired consciousness)
patient is alert, change in level of consciousness. Memory deficits. More oten gradual onset
aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, memory deficits, loss of abstract thought, beh changes, impaired judgment
depression (5 of these 9 criteria)
sleep disturbance
loss of interest
loss of energy
loss of concentration
change in appetite
psychomotor retardation
suicidal ideations
depressed mood
sleep patterns in depression
dec slow-wave sleep
dec REM latency
early-morning awakening s
risk factors for suicide completion
*previous attempt
loss of rational thinking
organized plan
no spouse
social support is lacking
manic episode (3 of 7)
flight of ideas
psychomotor agitation
dec Sleep
Talkativeness (pressured speech)
1 ___ defines bipolar disobrder
manic or hypomanic episode
consciously fakesto attain a specific gain
consciously creates sxs to asusme "sick role" but motivation is unconscious
Factitious d/o
chronic hx of multiple hospital admissions and willingness to receive invasive procedures
Munchausen's syndrome
illness production and motivation are unconscious drives
somatoform d/o
6 types of somatoform d/o
conversion - motor or sensory sxs (paralysis, pseudoseizure)
somatoform pain d/o - prolonged pain
hypochondriasis - preoccupation with having serious illness
somatization d/o - variety of complaints in multiple organ systems
body dysmorphic d/o - preoccupied with minor flaws
pseudocysis - false belief of being pregnant (manesh)
Panic d/o (4 of 13)
Palpitations, paresthesias
Abd distress
Intense fear of dying or losing control, lIghtheadness
Chest pain, chills, choking, disConnectedness
Sweating, Shaking, shortness of breath
nightmares of flashbacks. Disturbance > 1 month. Follows acute stress d/o (2-4 wks)
emotional sxs causing impairment follwing identifiable psychosocial stressor and lasting <6 mos
adjustment d/o
uncontrollable anxiety for at least 6 mos and unrelated to specific person, situation, or evcent
generalized anxiety d/o
severe communication problems and difficulty forming relationships
Autistic d/o
problems with social relationships and repetitive behvaior
asperger d/o
x-linked d/o seen ONLY in girls. loss of development and mental retardation, stereotyped hand-wringing
rett d/o
limited attention span and hyperactivity. emotionally labile, impulsive, prone to accidents
continued behavior violating social norms.
conduct disorder (antisocial personality d/o if > 18yo)
child is noncompliant in the absence of criminality
oppositional defiant disorder
motor/vocal tics and involuntary profanity
tourette's syndrome
fear of loss of attachment figure leading to factitious physical complaints to avoid going to school
separation anxiety d/o
binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives
bulimia nervosa
differences between hallucinations, illusions, and delusions
h - perceptions in absence of external stimuli
i - misinterpretations of actual external stimuli
d - false beliefs not shared with other members of culture
differene btw delusions and loose association
delusion - d/o in content of thought
loose assocation - d/o in form of thought
visual and auditory hall in
tactile hall in
cocaine intox or DT in OH withdrawal
olfactory hall in
aura of psychomotor epilepsy
different btw central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea
central - no resp effort
obst - resp effort against airway obstruction
narcolepsy findings
hypnagogic or hypnopompic hall, sleep episodes begins with REM sleep, cataplexy in some. Tx. stimulants like amphetamines
Diagnosis of schizophrenia is 2 of the 5
Disorganized thoughts
Disorganized or catatonic beh
Negative sxs - flat affect, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, lack of speech or thought
5 subtypes of schizophrenia
Cluster A personality d/o
Paranoid - distrust, suspiciousness
Schizoid - voluntary social withdrawal
Schizotypal - odd beliefs or magical thinking
Cluster B personality d/o
Antisocial - criminality
Bodrderline 0 unstable modd and interpersonal relationships
Histrionic - attention seeking, sex provocative
Narcissistic - gradniosity, sense of entitlement
Cluster C personality d/o
Avoidant - sensitive to rejection
Obsessive-compulsive - preoccupied with perfection
Dependent - submissive