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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
difference between case-control and cohort study
case-control: sample based on presence or absence of disease
cohort: subjects followed over time to see who gets the disease
describe meta-analysis
pooling data from several studies to get greater statistical power
4 kinds of bias
selection bias - nonrandom assignment
recall bias - knowledge of d/o alters recall
sampling bias - subjects not representative
late-look bias - info obtained at inappropriate time
4 ways to reduce bias
blind studies, placebo responses, crossover studies, randomization
incidence x disease duration is approximately =
prevalence
high ___ for a screening test
sensitivity
high ____ for a confirmatory test
specificity
false negative rate =
1 - Sn
false positive rate =
1 - Sp
Sn vs. PPV
Sn: number of TP divided by number of people with disease
a/(a+c)
PPV: number of TP divided by number of people who test (+) for disease
a/(a+b)
specificity vs NPV
sp: number of true (-) divided by # of people who don't have the disease
d/(b+d)
NPV: number of true (-) divided by # of people who test (-) for the disease
d/(c+d)
OR used for ___ studies; RR used for ___ studies
case-control; cohort
How is OR calculated?
ad/bc; number with disease divided by number w/o disease
What does OR approximate if the prevalence of disease is not too high?
RR
How is RR calculated?
a/(a+b) / c/(c+d);
number with disease divided by number in group
random error vs systematic error
random: reduced precision
systematic: reduced accuracy
mean > median leads to ___ skew
positive
mean < median leads to ____ skew
negative
type I error
to accept H1 when H0 is true; ie. stating there is an effect when none exists
alpha
type II error
to fail to reject H0 when H0 is false; ie stating there is NO effect when an effect DOES exist
beta
probability of rejecting H0 when it is in fact false
power
what does power depend on?
total number of end points, difference in compliance between treatment groups, size of expected effect
SEM =
sigma / sqrt n
range of values in which a specified prob of means of repeated samples would be expected to fall
confidence interval
3 types of disease prevention
primary - prevent disease occurence
secondary - early detection
tertiary - reduce disability
preventive measure for homeless, recent immigrant, or inmate
TB test.
reportable diseases
B.A. S(3)M(2)ART Chicken or you're Gone:
Hep B
Hep A
Salmonella
Shigella
Syphilis
Measles
Mumps
AIDS
Rubella
TB
Chickenpox
Gonorrhea
#1 leading causes of death in:
infants
1-14
15-24
25-64
65+
infants: congenital anomalies
1-14: injuries
15-24: injuries
25-64: cancer
65+: heart disease
informed consent requires:
discussion of pertinent info (risks, benefits, alternatives)
patient's agreement
freedom from coercion
4 exceptions to informed consent
- waiver
- therapeutic privilege
- not legally competent
- implied consent (emergency)
durable power of attorney
pt designates surrogate to make decisions if pt loses decision-making capacity
exceptions to confidentiality
infectious diseases, Tarasoff decision, child and elder abuse, impaired auto drivers, homicidal/suicidal
3D's for malpractice
dereliction (breach of duty), damage, direct
Situation: a child wishes to know more about his illness.
Ask what parents have told child. Parents of child decide what info can be given.
APGAR
appearance (color)
pulse
grimace (reflex irritability)
activity (muscle tone)
respiration
holds head up, Moro reflex disappears, social smile
3 mo
rolls front to back, sits when propped, recognizes people
4-5 mo
Sits alone, crawls, stranger anxiety, orients to voice
7-9 mo
upgoing Babinski disappears
12-14 mo
walks, few words, separation anxiety
15 mo
climbs stairs, stacks 3 blocks, object permanence
12-24 mos
stacks 6 blocks, rapprochement
18-24 mos
parallel play
24-48 mos
core gender identity
24-36 mos
stacks 9 blocks, toilet training
30-36 mos
rides tricycle, copies lines or circle drawing, group play
3 years
simple drawings (stick figure), hops on 1 foot, cooperative play, imaginery friends
4 years
reads; understands death, development of conscience, same-sex friends, identification with same-sex parent
6-11 yrs
abstract reasoning, formation of personality
11 yrs (girls), 13 yrs (boys)
time period for normal bereavement
6 mos - 1 year
Kubler-Ross
denial, anger, bargaining, grieving, acceptance
differential diagnosis of sexual dysfunction
drugs (antihypertensives, neuroleptics, SSRI, ethanol)
diseases (depression, diabetes)
psychological (performance anxiety)
BMI
wt in kg / (ht in meters)^2
IQ < ___ for mental retardation
70
learning in which a natural response is conditioned
classical conditioning
learning in which a particular action occurs b/c of reward
operant conditioning
oedipus complex
repressed sexual feelings of child for opposite-sex parent, accompanied by rivalry with same-sex parent
guilty feelings alleviated by unsolicited generosity toward others
altruism
appreciating the amusing nature of an anxiety-provoking or adverse situation
humor
replacing unacceptable wish with wish that does not conflict with one's value system
sublimation
voluntary withholding of idea or feeling from conscious awareness
suppression
mature ego defenses
SASH
suppression
altruism
sublimation
humor
unacceptable feelings and thoughts are expressed through actions
acting out
temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior to avoid emtional stress
dissociation
avoidance of awareness of some painful reality
denial
process whereby avoided ideas and feelings are transferred to some neutral person or object
displacement
partially remaining at a more childish level of development
fixation
modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful
identification
separation of feelings from ideas and evcents
isolation
an unacceptable internal impulse is atributed to external source
projection
proclaiming logical reaosns for actions actually performed for other reasons
rationalization
warded-off idea is replaced by opposite idea
reaction formation
going back to earlier modes of dealing with world
regression
involuntary withholding of idea or feeling
repression