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34 Cards in this Set

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Name 4 sulfonamides.
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)
Sulfisoxazole
Triple sulfas
Sulfadiazine
PABA antimetabolites that inhibit dihydropteroate synthase.
Sulfonamides
Indications for Sulfonamides in general
G(+)
G(-)
Nocardia
Chlamydia
Toxs of Sulfonamides
Hypersensitivity reactions
Hemolysis if G6pd def
Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Kernicterus in infants
Displaces other drugs from albumin like warfarin
Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase.
Trimethoprim
Used in combo with sulfonamides to block folate syn
Trimethoprim
Indications for TMX-SMX
Recurrent UTI, Shigella, Salmonella, PCP
Toxs of Trimethoprim
Treats Marrow Poorly:
Megaloblastic anemia
Leukopenia
Granulocytopenia
What can you add to alleviate someof the toxicities of trimethoprim?
Folinic acid
Name 2 fluoroquinolones that don't end in "-floxacin"
Enoxacin
Nalidixic acid
Inhibits DNA gyrase. Bactericidal.
fluoroquinolones
Indicaitons for fluoroquinolones
G(-) rods of urinary and GI tract (pseudomonas)
Neisseria
Some G(+)
2 most serious Toxs of Fluoroquinolones
contraindicted in pregnant women and children for damage to cartilage;
tendonitis and tendon rupture in adults
Forms toxic metabolies in the bacterial cell
Metronidazole
Indictions for Metronidazole
GET: giardia, entamoeba, trichomonas
Bacteroides, Clostridium, H.Pylori (as part of triple therapy)
Tox of metronidazole
disulfiram-like rxn with OH; H/A, metallic taste
Bind to cell membranes of bacteria and disrupts osmotic properites.
Polymyxins
Indications for polymyxins
Resistant G(-)
Toxs of polymyxins
neurotox, acute renal tubular necrosis
name the 5 anti-TB drugs
IRPES: isoniazid (INH), rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin
dec syn of mycolic acids
INH
only agent used solo for TB
iNH
blocks mrna syn
rifampin
4R's of rifampin
RNA pol inhibitor
Revs up microsomal P-450
Red/orangle body fluids
Rapid Resistance if used alone
resistance mech of penicillins/cephalosporins
beta-lactamase cleavage of beta-lactam ring
resistance mech of vancomycin
d-ala ala to d-ala lac
resistance mech of tetracyline
dec uptake or inc transport out of cell
resistance mech of sulfonamides
altered enzyme (dihydropteroate synthetase); dec uptake, inc PABA syn
prophylaxis used for meningococcus
*rifampin
minocycline
prophylaxis used for gonorrhea
ceftriaxone
prophylaxis used for syphilis
(benzathine) penicllin G
prophylaxis used for history of recurrent UTI
TMX-SMX
prophylaxis used for PCP
*TMX-SMX, pentamidine
prophylaxis used for endocarditis due to surgical or dental procedures
penicillins