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46 Cards in this Set

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What are four latin-based neuroanatomical terms indicating "up", "down", "front", "back"
Superior = up (towards head)
Inferior = down(towards feet)
Anterior = front(chest)
Posterior = back
SIAP (Mnemonic)
What are the four orientation names which *shift direction* above the midbrain in humans?
Rostral, Caudal, Ventral, Dorsal
Why do the Greek-based names shift direction above the midbrain in humans?
In humans, the brain makes a 90-degree bend to allow eyes to face forward while walking upright. (Lizards don't need this!)
Name the three "anatomical planes of section" (or planes of dissection).
Coronal, Sagital, Horizontal (also called "axial", "transverse")
The Horizontal section is ________ to the floor when you are standing upright
Parallel (in the same plane as the floor ). Cuts in the same direction as a guillotine!
You can remember the "Sagittal" plane of section because the "Sagittarius" constellation represents an ____________.
Archer. So when you picture yourself holding a bow and arrow, that's the "Sagittal Plane". So the "mid-sagittal" plane cuts the brain cuts the brain into left and right hemispheres.
The coronal plane is so called because a t_ _ _ _ (type of crown) worn on the head forms the same plane.
Tiara. So the coronal plane is parallel to the front of the face.
"Parasagital" means _______
A sagittal plane which is just off the midline (i.e., doesn't exactly cut the brain into left and right halves).
**The human nervous system is divided into two main parts: The peripheral nervous system and the _________.
Central nervous system (CNS)
**The central nervous system consists of the _________ and __________ cord, and develops during development out of cells that form the _______ tube.
Brain, Spinal Cord. Neural Tube.
**The upper neural tube gradually forms various bulges which develop into the brain, while the lower part forms the spinal cord. The fluid-filled space within the neural tube itself develops into fluid-filled spaces within the brain called the v_______, containing ________ fluid.
Ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid.
Together, the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to as the ___________, which is the most evolutionarily ancient part of the brain.
Brain stem. If you recall the brain model in class, the main part of the brain (Forebrain) sits like a huge cauliflower on top of the stalk-like midbrain.
**The part of the brain that sits like a cauliflower on the "stalk" of the midbrain is called the F_ _ _BRAIN (no spaces in this word).
**The forebrain has two main divisions, which you can remember by recalling that one part contains the thalamus and hypothalamus, and the other part contains everything else above it.
1) Diencephalon ("two brains" = thalamus, hypothalamus)
2) Telencephalon ("top" or "end" brain)--includes structures like basal ganglia, cortex, white matter, etc.
**The peripheral nervous system consists of ______, _______, _________ and _______, and ___________
Cranial nerves + ganglia; Spinal nerves + ganglia; sympathetic + parasympathetic;
Enteric nervous system
A "ganglion" is simply a collection of ____________. Unlike a "nucleus", it located in the p_________ nervous system rather than the central nervous system.
nerve cells (neuron cell bodies); peripheral. For example, there is a cranial nerve ganglion which controls aspects of eye-movement. Cranial nerves typically are attached to ganglia located in the brain stem.
Cranial nerves are typically attached to ganglia located in the ________ ________.
Brain stem
A neuron typically consists of a _______ ______ with nucleus, a thread-like structure which typically collects input called a ________, and an output structure called an _______.
The input and output structures are like "wires", which may or may not be covered with "insulation" (myelin)
Cell body, axon, dentrite.
"White matter" typically consists of ________ covered with insulation called ________. In effect, white matter are "wires" connecting different parts of the brain.
Axons, myelin.
Communication between neurons typically takes place at s___________.
**Two general types of synapses exist. They are _________ and ___________. The __________ type is probably the most common.
Chemical (uses neurotransmitters) and electrical (direct electrical coupling between neurons). Chemical is most common.
"Gray matter" consists primarily of _______ bodies. Synapses are also usually gray matter.
Cell bodies (appear gray because they are not covered with fatty, white myelin sheath).
Dopamine, seratonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, GABA, Glutamate, Histamine, Glycine, peptides are all examples of _______________ and are found at synapses.
**"Afferent" nerve fibers carry impulses (away/towards) a structure?
towards. Thus sensory nerves are usually "afferent", because they carry information towards the brain.
**"Efferent" nerve fibers carry impulses (away/towards a structure)?
Away. (Efferent = "exit"). Thus, motor fibers are usually "efferent".
**A collection of nerve fibers (usually myelinated nerve fibers) is called by several different names. Name two.
Possibilities are: Tract, fascicle (or fasciculus), lemniscus, or bundle.
**A white matter pathway that connects identical structures on both sides of the brain is called a c__________.
Commissure. Two main commisures: anterior, posterior. In addition, the corpus callosum is a massive fiber tract connecting the two halves of the brain.
**In the spinal cord, d_______ nerve roots convey mainly sensory information into the spinal cord, while v_______ nerve roots convey mainly motor information out of the spinal cord to muscles, etc.
dorsal, ventral
**The sympathetic nervous system controls mainly "Flight or fight" responses, and releases the neurotransmitter ____________. It arises from the lower part of the spinal cord.
**The parasympathetic nervous system is generally involved with sedentary/conservation activities (e.g., digestion) and is associated with the neurotransmitter ___________. It arises from the upper part of the spinal cord and cranial nerves.
"Bumps" or ridges in the cerebral cortex are called ______________. The crevices or folds are called __________________.
Gyri (singular = "gyrus"), Sulci (singular = "sulcus")
The brain becomes phylogentically more ancient (and less easily damaged by injury) as you move in which direction?
In a caudal direction (or inferior, down, towards the bottom)
Name three mnemonic/organizational principles regarding neuroanatomy mentioned in lecture.
Possible answers: 1) "proximity" (structures close together tend to have similar function and are wired together).
2) Incorporation or"cannibalization" (the function of older structures is often incorporated into newer, more complex structures).
Name the three parts of the brain stem, in correct order from caudal to rostral.
Medulla, pons, midbrain.
Sitting on the top of the brain-stem (back of neck, ventral) like a “hat” is the
______________, a structure which looks a bit like a cauliflower and is involved in motor control.
What structure forms the roof of the fourth ventricle? HINT: It is involved in motor control, and has two hemispheres.
Name a prototypical function of the medulla, mentioned in lecture.
Regulation of vital functions, such as respiration, blood pressure, etc.
What ventricle is associated with the medulla (at least in part).
Fourth ventricle.
Where is most cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)manufactured (two word answer, not "lateral ventricles").
The *chorid plexes* (plurual) which line the lateral ventricals.
As we proceed further rostrally from the medulla (towards the head), we next encounter a structure known as the ________.
On the ventral side of the pons is a large bulge which contains fiber tracts from the cerebellum. This bulge is referred to as the c______ c______ or (alternativeLY the c_________ p_________
"Crus Cerebri" or "cerebral peduncles"
Climbing higher (rostrally) from the pons, we come to the next structure, which looks like a relatively thin “stalk” is called the _________.
The midbrain seems to connect the stalk-like brain stem to the main part of the brain, which sits like a huge cauliflower on the stalk. The huge califlower (includes basal banglia, thalamus, cortex, corona radiata, etc) as a whole is referred to as the ________________.
The forebrain consists of two major subdivisions. HINT: They both have "encephalon" in the name
1) "Diencephalon"--means "two brains" (consists of thalamus, hypothalamus) and
2) "Telencelphalon" -- means "top" or "end" brain(consist of everyting else in the forebrain).
The stalk-like structure described above contains some funny bumps on the dorsal (back of the neck) side, called the superior ___________ and the inferior _____________. The large, top set of bumps is related _______ functioning (a type of sensory information), while the second, smaller bumps are related to ____________ functioning (type of sensory information).
Superior, Inferior, Vision, Hearing.
The midbrain contains which part of the ventricular system?
"Cerebral acquaduct" or "Aquaduct of Sylvius"