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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blind spots form Glaucoma
sensitivity to light
impaired far vision, nearsighted
impaired near vision, farsighted, people over 45 yrs old.
fusion reflex
keeps eyes parallel.
constant malalignment of the eyes
inward turn of the eyes
outward turn of the eye
shaking mvmnt of the eye
eye lashes in
eye lashes out
drooping upper eyelid(s)
stye, hair follicle infection
raised yelow plaques near the inner canthus
protrusion of eyeball, poss Grave disease, hyperthyroidism.
pink eye
Arcus Senilis
in elderly, normal, no effect on vision, white arc around limbus.
pinpoint pupils
dialated and fixed pupils
injury causes RBC's to accumulate in the lower half of the chamber of the eye
inflammatory respones in which WBC's accumulate in the anterior chamber of the eye, cloudiness inthe front of iris.
Distant Visual Acuity Tests
Snellen/20 ft
E Chart/20 ft
Near Visual Acuity Tests
Jaeger Reading Card
Rosenbaum Card
Visual Fields/Confrontation Test
Fingers from eight different spots moved in slowly so that the client tests peipheral viewing.
Corneal Light Reflex Test
Ceiling lights
Cover/Uncover Test
• Deviation in alignment
• Strabismus – constant malalignment of the eyes
• Esotropia – inward turn of the eye
• Exotropia – outward turn of the eye
Positions Test/EOMs
• 6 cardinal positions
• Nystagmus – shaking movement of the eye
• Inner ear disorder, MS, brain lesions, narcotics use
Inspection of Eyelids and Eyelashes
• Palpebral fissures
• Discharge
Inspection of Eyelids and Eyelashes
• Eyelid closure bilaterally - ptosis
• Level of eyelid on eye
• Entropian – eye lashes in
• Extropian – eye lashes out
• Redness
• Swelling
• Discharge
• Lesions
Eyeball Position
• Position
• Alignment
• No protruding/sinking
• African Americans – more protruding
• Exophthalmos – protrusion of eyeball – hyperthyroidism
• Sunken - dehydration
Bulbar Conjunctiva and Sclera
• Move eyes up and side to side
• Clarity
• Color – clear
• Texture - moist, smooth
• Yellowish nodules – elderly
• African Americans – Sclera with yellow or pigmented freckles
• Pink eye - conjunctivitis
Palpebral Conjunctiva
• Pull down lower eyelid
• Patient to look up
• Avoid pressure on eye
• Watch contacts
Lacrimal Apparatus
• Inspect Puncta
• Palpate
• Gloves
Cornea and Lens
• Shine light from side
• Look through pupil
• Arcus Senilis – elderly
Iris and Pupil
• Shape
• Color
• Size
• Measure pupils – 3-5 mm
Iris and Pupil
• Miosis – pinpoint pupils
• Mydriasis – dilated and fixed pupils
• Pupils
• Equal
• Round
• React to
• Light and
• Accommodation
• Direct light response
• Consensual response – place card between eyes
• Accommodation of Pupils
• Far/near
• Convergence
Internal Eye Structures
• Ophthalmoscope
• Angle – 15 degrees
• Right to Right, Left to Left
• Thumb on eyebrow
• Red reflex
• Optic disc – creamy, yellow-orange to pink
• Size, Color, Shape
• Physiological cup – nerve enters, blood supply
• Optic discs
• Larger in Blacks, Asians, Native Americans
• Smaller in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites
• Glaucoma – intraocular pressure
• Interfers with blood supply to optic structures
Retinal Vessels
• Number of sets – 4
• Arterioles
• Bright red
• Progressively narrow
• Light reflex
• Venules
• Darker red
• Larger
• Progressively narrow
• AV nicking
• Hypertension
Retinal Background
• Red-orange
• Lighter near the disc
• Light colored spots
• Exudates from Hypertension or diabetes
Anterior Chamber of Eye
• Transparent
• Bulging
• Depressed