Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What are the 2 purposes of the eyelids
Protect the eyeball and lublricate the ocular surface
Where are the meibomian glands located?
Within the tarsal plate in each eyelid (upper and lower)
The lids come together at the medial and lateral _____.
The space between the lids is called the ____.
Palpebral fissure.
The thick outer coat of the eye, normally white and opaque is called the ____.
____ is the junction between the cornea and the sclera
The Iris is the colored part of the eye that screens out light, primarily via the _____, which lines its ____ surface.
pigmented epithelium, posterior
The ___ is the ciruclar opening in the center of the iris that adjusts the amount of light entering the eye.
The size of the pupil is determinted by the ____ and ____ innervation of the ___.
sympathetic, parasympathetic, iris.
The thin, vascular tissue covering th inner aspect of the eyelids and sclera.
The ____ conjunctiva covers the inner aspect of the eyelids
papebral cojunctiva
The ____ conjunctiva covers the sclera
bulbar conjunctiva
CN IV innervates what muscle
superior oblique
CN VI innervates what muscle
lateral rectus
___ is the space that lies between the cornea anteriorly and the iris posteriorly. ____ fluid is found inside
Anterior chamber, aqueous humor
___ is the transparent, biconfex body suspended by zonules behind the pupil and iris; art of the refracting mechanism of the eye.
____ produces aqeous humor
ciliary body
Contraction of the ___ muscle changes tension on the zonular fibers that suspend the lens and allows the eye to focus from distant to near objects (accomodation)
Ciliary body
The _____ is the small space filled with aqueous humor behind the iris and in front of the vitreous.
Posterior chamber
____ is the relatively large space (4.5cc) behind the lens that extends to the retina. It is filled with transparent jelly-like material called the ____
Viterous cavity, vitreous humor
____ is the neural tissue lining the vitreous cavity posteriorly.
____ lie on the surface of the retina which is otherwise transparent.
Blood vessels
____ is the area of the retina at the posterior pole of the eye responsible for fine, central vision.
The oval depression in the center of the maucla is called the ____
____ is the vascular, pigmented tissue layer between the sclera and the retina
The choroid provides the blood supply for the ___ retinal layers
____ is the portion of the optic nerve visible within the eye. It is comprised of axons whose cell beodies are located in the ___ cell layer of the retina
Retina, ganglion
What 2 structures make up the refractive surfaces of the eye
cornea and lens
The cornea provides ___ of the refractive power, while the lens provides.
2/3 cornea, 1/3 lens
An axial length of the eye that is too short will result in ___
An axial length of the eye that is too ong will result in ___
If the refracting power of the cornea and lens is different in one meridian than in another there will be a decrease in refractive power called ___
A pinhold placed directly in front of the eye will narrow the effective ___(2 words)___ and thereby minimize the blurring induced by a refractive error
pupillary aperture
The ability of the ciliary muscle to contract and the lens to become more convex is called ____
Loss of accommmodation due to lens hardening is manifested by a decreased ability to focus on near objects called ____, while corrected distance visual acuity remains normal
Some myopic patients with presbyopia can remove their distance glasses to read because _____?
They do not need to accommodate in the uncorrected state
What are the 4 components of a minimal ocular exam
visual acuity, pupillary reactions, extraocular movements and direct ophthalmoscopy the undilated pupils
What are the 2 cases when pupillary dilation for ophthalmoscopy is required
unexplained visual loss or suspected fundus pathology (DM)
At what age should children have their distance visual acuity measured and why?
3, to detect amblyopia
If a patient has been diagnosed with glaucoma what test should be done?
If narrow-angle glaucoma is suspected what test should be done prior to pupillary dilation?
Anterior chamber depth assessment
What type of testing should be done if there is suspicion of a visual field defect?
Confrontation field testing
What test should be done in patients with retinal and optic nerve disorders?
Color vision testing
What test is done when a corneal epithelial defect or abnormality is suspected?
Flourescein staining
What should be done if the presence of a foreign body is suspected?
Eversion of the upper lid
Why is 20 feet used as the standard for distnace visual acuity testing
For practical purposes this distance may be equated with optical infinity
In what case should pinhole test be used?
If the visual acuity is 20/40 or less in one or both eyes. It can be done over the subjects glasses
What should be done if the patient cannot read the Snellen chart at 3 feet
Finger counting test, must record finger distance accurately (CF 1ft)
If the patient cannot count finger what test should be done?
hand movement test, record distance at which pt can see hand move (HM 2ft)
If the patient cannot see hand motion what test should be done?
Penlight presense and direction (LP = light perception + projection, NLP = no light perception)
Level of visual impairment that requires strong reading glasses, insufficient for driving
Moderate low vision, 20/80 to 20/160
Level of visual impariment that results in inability to read traffic signs, but allows adequate glorss orientation and mobility.
Severe low vision, legal blindness in US, 20/200-20/400, or CF 10ft
Level of visual impairment that results in increasing problems with visual orientation and mobility and makes longcane useful. Highly motivated pts can read with extreme magnification.
Profound low vision, CF 8ft to 4ft
What level of visual impairment results in vision that is unreliable except under ideal circumstances, pt must rely on nonvisual aids
near-total blindness, less than CF 4ft
What level of visual impairment results in no light perception at all
Total blindness, NLP
Under what circumstances is near visual acuity testing done?
Complaint about near vision or inablity to test far vision (pt in bed)
What reflex response suggests presense of vision?
brisk pupillary response to light except in pts with cortical blindness
What are the 2 components of pupillary reaction testing
direct and consensual pupillary reaction to light while looking at a distant object
What test is used to determine an afferent defect in the anterior visual pathway?
swinging-flashlight test
Name 2 causes of alteration in pupillary shape or size due to a local intraocular process
damage to pupillary sphincter or adhesion of iris to lens
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Right and Up
Rt superior rectus and Lt inferior oblique
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Right
Rt lateral rectus and Lt medial rectus
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Right and Down
Rt inferior rectus and Lt superior oblique
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Left and Up
Lt superior rectus and Rt inferior oblique
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Left
Lt lateral rectus and Rt medial rectus
What 2 muscles are being tested when the patient looks Left and Down
Lt inferior rectus and Rt superior oblique
What are 3 contraindications to pupillary dilation?
shallow anterior chamber and narrow angle, neuro observation for pupillary signs (post head injury) and s/p cataract extraction with implantation of an IRIS supported intraocular lens (pupil looks square)
What are the 4 things in order that should be examined on ophthalmoscopy
optic disc, retinal blood vesselss, retinal background and macula
The ____ is a central depression in the surface of the optic disc
physiologic cup
What is the normal disc diameter?
What causes a hypopigmted crescent of the optic disc
If the retinal pigment epithelium and/or choroid fail to reach the disc margin
Which patients frequently have a hypopigmented temporal crescent
myopic pts
What can cause a dense white superficial opacification with feathery edges of the optic disc?
If myelination of the optic nerve extends onto the surface of the disc
In what layer are the divisions of the retinal artery found?
Superficially in the nerve fiber layer
What % of normal eyes will have spontaneous pulsation of vessels at optic disc?
What is the ratio of normal vein to artery diameter?
How should the arteries and veins of the retina be examined?
Arteries followed away from the disc, veins toward the disc for each quadrant
Where is the macula found and how can it be recognized
Darkly pigmented area temporal to the optic disc (specialized retinal pigment epithelial cells of the macula are taller and more heavily pigmented)
What causes the foveal reflex
Light reflecting off the concave surface of the fovea
What determines the intraocular pressure
Outflow of aqeous humor and amount produced
What is the mean IOP in a normal , what is the normal range
15mm Hg, 10 to 21.5
What type of tonometer is used by ophthalmologists
Goldmann applanantion tonometry
The iris becomes convex as it is bowed over the lens in what circumstance
shallow anterior chamber, nasal iris is seen in a shaddow when light is shined from opposite side
Who do you assess for shallow anterior chamber?
Shine light from temporal side across front of eye and look at nasal aspect of iris, if 2/3+ is in shadow the chamber is shallow
What is the reference in confrontation field testing?
The visual field of the examiner, pt counts fingers held up by examiner
What method is used to evaluate the macula
Amsler grid testing
What are the 3 color sensitive pigments of the retina
red, green and blue
What is used for color testing
Pseudoisochoromatic plates (Ishihara plates)
What maneuver is used to return the eye to its normal position after upper eyelid eversion
examiner releases the lid margin and instructs pt to look up
In flourescein testing what denotes absent or decreased epithelium
areas stained bright green
What enhances the visibility of flourescein?
cobalt blue light
2 precautions in flourescein testing
use strips not solution (suseptible to psuedomonas) and remove contacts to avoid discoloration of the contacts
11 steps of eye exam in summery
measure visual acuity
peform confrontation field testing
inspect eyelids and surrounding tissues
test extraocular movements
test the pupils for direct and consensual responses
inspect the cornea and iris
assess the anterior chamber for depth and clarity
assess the lens for clarity through direct ophthalmoscope
use ophthalmoscope to study fundus, disc vessels and macula
perform tonometry when indicated
6 indications for referal to ophthalmologist
visual acuity less that 20/20 in either eye with complaints
visual acuity less that 20/40 without complaints
Assymetry: difference in visual acuity of 2+ lines on Snellen chart
Abnomal fundus
IOP > 22mm