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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Location of the Gluteal Region
The Clunes
Cluneal Nerves
L1-L3, S1-S3
(Supply the skin of the gluteal region)
Osteology/Landmarks of the Gluteal Region
Iliac Spine, Greater Sciatic Foramen, Greater Trochanter
Ligaments of the Gluteal Region
Sacrotuberous Ligament, Sacrospinous Ligament
Sacrospinous Ligament
Runs perpindicular to Sacrotuberous Ligament. Attaches to Sacrum and Ischial Spine
Gluteus Maximus
O: Ext. surface of Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line of the Sacrotuberous Ligament

Ins: 3/4 of the Iliotibial band. Deep Fibers: Gluteal Tuberosity 1/4

Inv: Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1-S2) D

Blood Supply: Superior and Inferior Gluteal Arteries
Gluteus Medius
O: Between Anterior and Posterior Lines

Ins: Lateral Surface of the Greater Trochanter

Inv: Superior Gluteal Nerve (L4, L5, S1) D. Inferior Gluteal Nerve(L5, S1-S2) D

Action: Superior Gluteal Artery
Gluteus Minimus
O: Between Anterior and Inferior Gluteal Lines

Ins: Greater Trochanter in the Anterior Part

Inv: Superior Gluteal Nerve

Action: Abduction of thigh, medial rotation of thigh(keeps pelvis leveled during opp. leg is being raised)
Piriformis
O: Ant. Surface of the Sacrum

Ins: Greater Trochanter's Sup. Surface of the hip.

Inv: Nerve to the Piriformis (L5, S1, and S2 nerve roots)

Action: Laterally rotates the extended thigh and abducts the flexed thigh.
Superior Gemellus
O: Spine of the ischium

Ins: Obturator Internus tendon

Inv: nerve to obturator internus (S1, S2, S3)

Actions: Rotates laterally thigh

Blood Supply: Inferior gluteal artery
Inferior Gemellus
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Medial Surface of the Greater Trochanter of the Femur

Inv: Nerve to Quadratus Femoris and Inferior Gemellus
Obturator Externus
O: Outer Surface of Obturator Membrane of surrounding bones

Ins: Trochanteric Fossa

Inv: Obturator Nerve

Action: Lateral Rotation of the thigh
Quadratus Femoris
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Quadrate Triangle on the Intertrochanteric Crest of the Femur

Inv: L4,L5, S1 D

Action: Lateral rotation of the thigh
Clunial Nerves
Dorsal Rami: L1-L3, S1-S3
Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
S1, S2 (D). S2, S3(V).

Supplies the skin of the inferior, superior gluteal nerve of the gluteal region.
Superior Gluteal Nerve
L4, L5, S1(D)

Enters the gluteal region above the piriformis.

Crosses the gluteal region(medial to lateral)

Lateral Gluteus Med and Min
Inferior Gluteal Nerve
L5, S1, S2 (D)

Enters the gluteal region inferior to piriformis. Supplies the gluteal maximus
Pudendal Nerve
S2, S3, S4 (V)
Somatice and Automatic functions. Enters the gluteal region inferior to piriformis.

Parasympathetic Craniosacral Outflow
Superior Gluteal Artery
Pelvis to Greater Sciatic Foramen to Gluteal Region

Superficial Branch: Gluteus Maximus

Deep Branch: Crosses region between Gluteus Med. and Min. Supplies Glute Med/Min, TFL, and hip joint.

Anastomosis with inf. gluteal and med. femoral circumflex aa.
Inf. Gluteal Artery
Pelvis to Greater Sciatic Foramen to Gluteal Region.

Descends on medial side of the sciatic nerve.

Supplies: Glute Max, Deep Rotators, Sup. Hamstrings.

Anastomosis with Sup. Gluteal Artery.

Cruciate Anastomosis of thigh
Pudendal Nerve
S2, S3, S4 (V)
Somatice and Automatic functions. Enters the gluteal region inferior to piriformis.

Parasympathetic Craniosacral Outflow
Quadratus Femoris
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Quadrate Triangle on the Intertrochanteric Crest of the Femur

Inv: L4,L5, S1 D

Action: Lateral rotation of the thigh
Internal Pudendal Artery
Pelvis to Greater Sciatic Foramen to Gluteal Region to Lesser Sciatic Foramen to Perineum.

Runs with Pudendal Nerve (S2, S3, S4)

Supplies: Ext. Genetalia, Ms in the pelvic region, NOT gluteal region.

Branch in the gluteal region to the external anal sphincter
Adductor Halucis
PA: Calcaneus bone

DA: Proximal phalanx of the great toe

Action: Abducts and flexes the great toe

Inv: Medial Plantar Nerve (S2-S3)
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
PA: Calcaneus bone

DA: Lateral surfaces of the middle phalanx of digits 2-5

Action: Flexes digits 2-5

Inv: Medial Plantar Nerve (S2-S3)
Abductor Digiti Minimi
PA: Calcaneus bone

DA: Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx for digit 5

Action: Abducts and flexes digit 5

Inv: Lateral plantar nerve (S2-S3)
Quadratus Plantae (Layer 2)
PA: Calcaneus bone

DA: Tendon of the flexor digitorum longus

Action: Flexes digits 2-5

Inv: Lateral plantar nerve (S2-S3)
Lumbricals (Layer 2)
Tendons of the flexor digitorum longus

DA: Expansion over digits 2-5

Action: Flex the proximal phalanges and extend the middle and distal phalanges of digits 2-5

Inv: Medial one: Plantar nerve

Lateral three: Lateral Plantar nerve
Flexor Hallucis Brevis (Layer 3)
PA: Cuboid and lateral cuneiform bones

DA: Base of the proximal phalanx for the great toe

Action: Flexes the great toe

Inv: Medial plantar nerve
Adductor Hallucis (Layer 3)
PA: Oblique head: Base of the metatarsals 2-4

Transverse head: Metatarsophalangeal joints

DA: Proximal phalanx of the great toe

Action: Adducts the great toe

Inv: Deep branch of the the lateral plantar nerve
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
(Layer 3)
PA: Base of the fifth metatarsal bone

DA: Proximal phalanx of the great toe

Action: Adducts the great toe

Inv: Deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve
Plantar Interossei (Layer 4)

3 muscles
PA: Base and the medial side of metatarsals 3-5

DA: Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of digits 3-5

Action: Adducts digits 2-4 and flex the metatarsophalangeal joints

Inv: Lateral plantar nerve
Dorsal Interossei (Layer 4)

4 muscles
PA: Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1-5

DA: First: Medial side of the proximal phalanx of digit 2

Second to fourth: Lateral side of digits 2-4

Action: Abducts digits 2-4 and flexes the metatarsophalangeal joints

Inv: Lateral plantar nerve
Ankle joint
Synovial Hinge joint
Ankle bones
Distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the trochlea of the talus
Articular surfaces of the ankle
Distal ends of tibia and fibula form a mortise(deep socket) for the trochlea of the talus

Medial and lateral malleoli articulate with the medial and lateral surfaces of the talus

The inferior surfaces of the tibia forms the roof of the mortise
Movements of the Ankle joint
Movements are in the ant/post directions. No side to side movements
Dorsiflexion
The dorsum of the foot moves toward the anterior surface of the leg. This is necessary to allow the foot to clear the ground in the swing phase of gait.
Plantarflexion
Occurs when the toes are in contact with the ground and the heel is raised off of the ground.
Ankle joint capsule
The fibrous capsule is thin anteriorly and posteriorly but is supported on each side by strong collateral ligaments.
Deltoid ligament of the ankle
Binds the medial malleolus to the tarsal bones(talus, calcaneus, navicular)

Stronger than the lateral ligaments

Ligament stablizes the ankle joint during eversion
Lateral collateral ligament of the ankle
Binds the lateral malleolus to the tarsal bones.

Divided into 3 parts:

Anterior talofibular ligament
Posterior talofibular ligament
Calcaneofibular ligament
Anterior Talofibular Ligament
Lateral malleoulus to neck of the talus
Calcaneus
Heel bone

Largest bone in the foot

Transmits body weight from the talus to the ground.

Sustentaculum Tali(supports the shelf for the talus) projects from medial surface to support the talar head.

Calcaneal tuberosity(post) with medial and lateral tubercles
Talus
Body,neck, and head

Superior surface bears the weight of the body, transmitted from the tibia.

Only tarsal with no muscular or tendinous attachments.
Navicular
Flattened, boat shaped

Articulates with the talar head posteriorly and 3 cuneiforms anteriorly

Medial surface projects to form the navicular tuberosity
Cuboid
Most lateral bone in the distal row of tarsals

Inferior surface contains the groove for the tendon of peroneus longus
3 cuneiforms
Medial, Int., and Lat

Articulate with the navicular posteriorly and the base of its appropriate metatarsal anteriorly

Lateral cuneiform with the cuboid.
5 metatarsals
Numbered from medial to lateral (1-5)

First is shorter and thicker than the other 4

Proximal base and distal head

Base of the 5th Metatarsal: Tuberosity

Plantar surface of head of first MT: Medial and lateral sesmoid bones in tendons of FHB.
Deep fascia of the leg
Crural Fascia
Compartments of the leg
Anterior Compartment

Lateral Compartment

Posterior Compartment: Superficial/Deep
Anterior Compartment of the Leg
1. Located anterior to the IOM bet. lateral surface of the tibia and ant. IMS
Contents of the Ant. Compartment of the Leg
4 muscles: TA, EHL, EDL, PT

Deep peroneal nerve

Anterior tibial vessels
Tibialis Anterior
O: Lateral condyle of the tibia, sup 2/3 lateral surface, IOM

Ins: Med.and Inf. surfaces of med. cuneiform, base of the 1st metacarpal

Action: Dorsiflexion of the foot, Inversion of foot

Inv: Deep Peroneal nerve
Deep fascia of the leg
Crural Fascia
Compartments of the leg
Anterior Compartment

Lateral Compartment

Posterior Compartment: Superficial/Deep
Anterior Compartment of the Leg
1. Located anterior to the IOM bet. lateral surface of the tibia and ant. IMS
Contents of the Ant. Compartment of the Leg
4 muscles: TA, EHL, EDL, PT

Deep peroneal nerve

Anterior tibial vessels
Tibialis Anterior
O: Lateral condyle of the tibia, sup 2/3 lateral surface, IOM

Ins: Med.and Inf. surfaces of med. cuneiform, base of the 1st metacarpal

Action: Dorsiflexion of the foot, Inversion of foot

Inv: Deep Peroneal nerve
Extensor Hallucis Longus
O: Anterior surface of fibula and IOM

Ins: Base of the distal phalanx of the big toe

Inv: Deep Peroneal Nerve

Action: Extends big toe, dorsiflexes foot
Extensor Digitorum Longus
O: Lateral condyle of the tibia, medial surface of the fibula, IOM

Ins: Middle, distal phalanges of the lateral 4 toes

Inv: Deep peroneal nerve

Action: Extends 4 toes, dorsiflexes foot.
Peroneus Tertius
O: Ant. Surface of fibula and IOM

Ins: Dorsal surface of the base of 5th metatarsal

Action: Dorsiflexion of foot, assists in eversion

Inv: Deep Peroneal Nerve
Deep Peroneal Nerve
1. Begins between neck of fibula and PL muscle

2. Pierces ant IMS to descend in ant leg with anterior tibial vs. between TA and EHL

3. Passes deep to the extensor retinacula at ankle with the vessels and divides into med. and lat. branches

4. Medial Br: Cutaneous
Lateral Br: Mixed
Anterior Tibial Artery
1. Smaller of 2 brs. of popliteal artery in the back of knee
2. Passes through proximal opening in IOM to reach anterior compartment of the leg

3. Descends on IOM bet. TA and EHL with deep peroneal nerve and 2 veins
4. Supplies anterior leg muscles and deep posterior leg muscles

5. Crosses ankle joint and changes name to Dorsalis Pedis artery
6. Many branches around knee and ankle/foot joints.
Lateral Compartment of the Leg
Borders: Fibula, ant. and post. IMS, crural fascia

Contents: 2 muscles
1. Peroneus Longus
2. Peronues Brevis
Peroneus Longus
O: Head and superior 2/3 of the fibula on lateral surface of fibula, posterior to lateral malleous

Ins: Plantar surface of the med. cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal

Inv: Superficial Plantar Nerve

Action: Plantar flexion of the foot and eversion of the foot
Peroneus Brevis
O: Inf. 2/3 lateral surface of fibula, posterior to lateral malleous

Ins: Tuberosity of the base of the 5th metatarsal

Inv: Superficial Peroneal nerve

Action: Plantar flexion of the foot, eversion of the foot
Superficial Peroneal Nerve
1. Originates from common peroneal nerve

2. Enters lateral leg as it wraps around neck of fibula

3. Supplies PL and PB muscles

4. Pierces deep fascia to become superfical and supplies the skin of the anterolateral leg and most of the dorsum of the foot
Arteries of the Lateral Leg
No named artery runs through the lateral leg. Blood supply is from branches of the peroneal artery
Shin Splints
Mild form of anterior compartment syndrome due to repetitive microtraumas of TA and small tears in the periosteum of the tibia. Muscles in anterior compartment swell from the sudden overuse.

Edema and muscle/tendon inflmmation reduce blood flow to muscles.

Swollen muscles are painful and tender
Deep Peroneal Nerve Entrapment
Excessive use of anterior leg muscles leads to muscle injury and edema

Tight fitting ski boots, tight shoes cause compression of the dorsum of the foot
Rectus Femoris
Heads:

Straight Head: AIIS
Reflected Head: Illium Superior to Acetabelum

Ins: Base of the Patella and Tibial Tuberosity via the Patellar Tendon

Inv: Femoral Nerve L2, L3, L4 D

Action: Ext. of leg/Flex. of thigh
Rectus Femoris
Heads:

Straight Head: AIIS
Reflected Head: Illium Superior to Acetabelum

Ins: Base of the Patella and Tibial Tuberosity via the Patellar Tendon

Inv: Femoral Nerve L2, L3, L4 D

Action: Ext. of leg/Flex. of thigh
Superficial Fascia
1 Deep to skin

2. Loose CT with superficial veins and nerves, and lymphatics.

3. Continuous with Superficial of Ant. Abdominal Wall and Gluteal Fascia.
Deep Fascia
1. Invest the thigh.

2. Forms the Intermuscular Septum.

3. Invests the muscle.

4. Deep Fascia of the thigh.
Three Fascial Compartments of the Thigh Divided by IMS
1. Origin of the Septa: Fascia Lata

2. Attach to the Linea Aspera

3. Lateral IMS attached to the IT Band
3 Compartments of the Thigh
1. Function of the muscles.

2. Nerve Supply to the muscles.

3. Major source of blood to compartment.
Muscles of the Medial Compartment
Gracillis
Pectineus
Muscles of the Post. Compartment
Hamstrings
Muscles of the Ant. Comp.
Sartorious
TFL
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Intermedius
Vastus Lateralis
Hamstrings Muscle Characteristics
1. Proximal Attachment: Ischial Tuberosity.

2. Crosses the Action of 2 joints (hip and knee)

3. Innervated by Tibial Nerve
Biceps Femoris
Long Head O: Ischial Tuberosity

Short Head O: Linea Aspera and Lateral Supra Condylar Ridge of Humerus

Insertion: Head of Fibula

Long Head Inv: Tibular Nerve
Short Head Inv: Common Peroneal Nerve

Action: Extends the thigh and flexes the thigh.
Semitendinosus
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Medial Surface of the Medial Condyle of the Tibia.

Inv: Tibial Nerve

Action: Flexes the thigh, Medial Rotates the thigh.
Semimembranosus
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Posterior Surface of Tibia

Inv: Tibial Nerve

Action: Extends thigh.
Adductor Magnus
O: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Adductor Tubercle of the Femur.

Inv: Tibial Nerve.

Action: Ext. of thigh.
Blood Supply to Posterior Thigh
1.Inferior Gluteal Artery

2. 4 branches of the Perfunda Femoris
Sciatic Nerves 2 Parts
1. Tibial Nerve ( L3-S3) V

2. Common Peroneal Nerve (L4-S2) D
Sciatic Nerve Muscular Inv.
1. Muscles of the posterior thigh.

2. Joints of the lower limb.

3. Muscles of the leg and foot.

4. Most of the skin of leg and foot.
Popliteal Fossa
Diamond Shaped space posterior to knee joint.
Medial Border of the Popliteal Fossa
Semitendonosus
Semimembraneosus
Lateral Border of the Popliteal Fossa
Biceps Femoris
Contents of Popliteal Fossa
1. Adipose Tissue

2. Nerves

3. Popliteal Artery/Vein
Roof of the Popliteal Fossa
Popliteal Fascia
Floor of the Popliteal Fossa
1. Popliteal Muscle

2. Oblique Popliteal Ligament
Nerves in the Popliteal Fossa
1. Medial Sural Cutaneous Nerve
2.Lateral Sural Cutaneous Nerve
3. Sural Nerve
Popliteal Vein
Forming by joining of anterior and posterior tibial veins.
In sheath with popliteal artery, and receives drainage of short saphenous vein. At adductor hiatus, is continuous with femoral vein.
Popliteal Artery
Continuous with femoral artery at adductor hiatus. Lies deep to popliteal vein, and divides into posterior and anterior tibial arteries at distal border of popliteus.
Sartorius
O: ASIS

Ins: Medial surface of the med. condyle of the tibia.

Inv: Femoral nerve (L2,L3,L4) D

Action: Flexes thigh/leg, Lateral rotates thigh.
TFL: Tensor Fasciae Lata
O: ASIS

Ins: IT Band

Inv: Sup. Gluteal Nerve (L4, L5, L1) D

Action: Flexion of thigh, abduction of thigh, med. rotates thigh.
Rectus Femoris
O: Straight Head: AIIS
Reflected Head: Iluim

Ins: Base of Patella and tibial tuberosity via petallar tendon.

Inv: Femoral Nerve( L2,L3, L4) D

Action: Extension of thigh.
Vastus Lateralis
O: Lateral Lip of linea aspera and greater trochanter.

Ins: Base of patella and tibia tuberosity via patellar tendon.

Inv: Femoral Nerve

Action: Extension of leg
Vastus Intermedius
O: Anterior and lateral surface of femur.

Ins: Base of the patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon.

Inv: Femoral Nerve

Action: Extension of the leg
Vastus Medialis
O: Medial lip of linea aspera and Intertrochanteric line.

Ins: Base of the patella

Inv: Femoral Nerve

Action: Extension of the leg
Femoral Triangle Boundaries
Sup: Inguinal Ligament

Lat: Sartorious

Med: Adductor Longus
Muscular Floor of the Femoral Triangle
1. Iliopsoas
2. Pectineus
Femoral Sheath
Fascial Tube of arteries and nerves
Contents of the Femoral Sheath
Lateral to Medial:

Femoral Nerve
Femoral Artery
Femoral Vein
Empty Space
Lymph
Femoral Vessels
Femoral Nerve, Femoral Artery.
Femoral Nerve
Largest branch of the lumbar plexus (L2, L3, L4)D
Innervation of the Femoral Nerve
Supplies the muscles of anterior thigh, hip/knee joints.

Supplies the skin fo the medial leg/foot, and skin of the anterior/medial thigh.
Femoral Artery
Continuous with Ext. Iliac Artery, under Ilioinguinal Ligament.

Runs the anterior thigh with femoral vein, as far as the adductor hiatus to become the popiteal artery.
Gastrocenmius
O: Med. Head: Medial Femoral Condyle.

Lat. Head: Lateral Femoral Condyle

Ins: Calcaneus

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexion
Soleus
O: Proximal Tibia and Fibula

Ins: Calcaneus

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexion
Plantaris
O: Posterior distal femur, superior to gastrocs

Ins: Calcaneus

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexion
Popliteus
O: Lateral condyles of femur and lateral meniscus.

Ins: Proximal posterior tibia.

Inv: Tibial Nerve

Action: Flexion of the leg
Tibialis Posterior
O: Posterior tibia, fibular, and the IOM

Ins: Plantar surface medial cuneiform and navicular tuberosity

Inv: Tibial Nerve

Action: Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot
Flexor Digitorum Longus
O: Posterior tibia and fascia of tibialis posterior

Ins.: Plantar surface of base of distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and digits
Flexor Hallucis Longus
O: Posterior fibula, fascia of tibialis posterior, IOM

Ins: Plantar surface base of distal phalanx great toe

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and great toe
Tibial nerve
1. Larger of 2 terminal branches of the sciatic nerve
2. Leaves popliteal fossa deep to 2 heads of gastrocnemius
3. Supplies all muscles of posterior leg and sole of foot
4. Runs down calf deep to soleus
5. At the ankle, lies bet. FDL and FHL
6. Posteroinferior to the medial malleolus, the tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves
Sural Nerve
Supplies the skin of the lateral and posterior part of the inferior 1/3 of the leg

Supplies the skin on the lateral side of the foot
Posterior Tibial Artery
1. Larger branch of the popliteal artery
2. Supplies posterior leg and the sole of foot
3. Nutrient artery to the tibia
4. At the distal border of popliteus, goes deep to the soleus with posterior tibial veins and tibial nerve.
5. Largest branch of the peroneal artery
Flexor Digitorum Longus
O: Posterior tibia and fascia of tibialis posterior

Ins.: Plantar surface of base of distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and digits
Flexor Hallucis Longus
O: Posterior fibula, fascia of tibialis posterior, IOM

Ins: Plantar surface base of distal phalanx great toe

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and great toe
Tibial nerve
1. Larger of 2 terminal branches of the sciatic nerve
2. Leaves popliteal fossa deep to 2 heads of gastrocnemius
3. Supplies all muscles of posterior leg and sole of foot
4. Runs down calf deep to soleus
5. At the ankle, lies bet. FDL and FHL
6. Posteroinferior to the medial malleolus, the tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves
Sural Nerve
Supplies the skin of the lateral and posterior part of the inferior 1/3 of the leg

Supplies the skin on the lateral side of the foot
Posterior Tibial Artery
1. Larger branch of the popliteal artery

2. Supplies posterior leg and the sole of foot

3. Nutrient artery to the tibia

4. At the distal border of popliteus, goes deep to the soleus with posterior tibial veins and tibial nerve.

5. Largest branch of the peroneal artery
Flexor Digitorum Longus
O: Posterior tibia and fascia of tibialis posterior

Ins.: Plantar surface of base of distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and digits
Flexor Hallucis Longus
O: Posterior fibula, fascia of tibialis posterior, IOM

Ins: Plantar surface base of distal phalanx great toe

Inv: Tibial nerve

Action: Plantar flexes foot and great toe
Tibial nerve
1. Larger of 2 terminal branches of the sciatic nerve
2. Leaves popliteal fossa deep to 2 heads of gastrocnemius
3. Supplies all muscles of posterior leg and sole of foot
4. Runs down calf deep to soleus
5. At the ankle, lies bet. FDL and FHL
6. Posteroinferior to the medial malleolus, the tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves
Sural Nerve
Supplies the skin of the lateral and posterior part of the inferior 1/3 of the leg

Supplies the skin on the lateral side of the foot
Posterior Tibial Artery
1. Larger branch of the popliteal artery

2. Supplies posterior leg and the sole of foot

3. Nutrient artery to the tibia

4. At the distal border of popliteus, goes deep to the soleus with posterior tibial veins and tibial nerve

5. Larges branch s the peroneal artery
Peroneal Artery
1. Usually within the FHL muscle.

2. Muscular branches to the posterior and lateral compartments of the leg

3. Nutrient artery to the fibula

4. Pierces the IOM to anastomose with the arcuate artery on the dorsum of the foot.
Pectineus
O: Superior Pubic Ramus

Ins: Petineal Line

Inv: Femoral Nerve

Action: Adducts and Flexes Thigh
Adductor Longus
O: Body of Pubis

Ins: Middle 1/3 linea aspera

Inv: Ant. Branch of Obturator Nerve(L1,L2,L3) V

Action: Adducts Thigh
Adductor Brevis
O: Body of Pubis

Ins: Proximal part of linea aspera

Inv: Anterior Branch of Obturator Nerve

Action: Adducts Thigh
Adductor Magnus
O: Adductor Part: Inf. Pubic Ramus and Ischial Ramus.

Hamstring Part: Ischial Tuberosity

Ins: Adductor Part:Gluteal Tuberosity

Hamstring Part: Adductor Tubercle

Inv: Tibial Nerve

Action: Adducts the thigh
Gracilis
O: Body of pubis, inferior pubic ramus

Ins: Medial surface of the medial condyle of tibia.

Inv: Anterior branch of Obturator Nerve

Action: Flexes thigh, adducts thigh
Obturator Externus
O: Outer Surface of Obterator Membrane of surrounding lines

Ins: Trochanteric Fossa

Inv: Obturator Nerve

Action: Lateral rotation of thigh
Obturator Nerve
Spinal Roots: Lumbar Plexus
(L1-L4) V

Anterior Division: Adductor Brevis

Posterior Division: Adductor Magnus
Blood Supply of Medial Thigh
Obturator Artery:
*Supplies the Medial Thigh
*Runs with Obturator Nerve
*Branch of Internal Illiac Artery

Femoral Artery:
*Profunda Femoris
Adductor Hiatus
An opening in the adductor magnus tendon between the adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur and the linea aspera. It provides an opening for the femoral artery and vein to reach the popliteal fossa. The femoral vessels become the popliteal vessels as they pass trhough the hiatus.
Adductor Canal
A narrow fascial tunnel that runs from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus(deep to the sartorious ms in the middle third of thigh)
Adductor Canal Contents
*Femoral Artery
*Saphenous Nerve
*Nerve to Vastus Medialis
Adductor Canal Boundaries
Anteriorly and Laterally: Vastus Medialis

Posteriorly: Adductor Longus and Magnus

Medially: Sartorious