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35 Cards in this Set

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EXTRA STUFF FOR SPRING MIDTERM: AM - EM
EXTRA STUFF FOR SPRING MIDTERM: AM - EM
Name the respiratory obstructive diseases
COPD (emphasemia, chronic bronchitis), asthma, CF
Name some respiratory restrictive diseases
sarcoidosis, kyphosis, spondylosis, pulmonary fibrosis
If FEV1/FVC is below predicted it is....
OBSTRUCTIVE
If FVC is below predicted it is...
RESTRICTIVE
What would you see on CXR for COPD and #1 complaint?
flat diaphragm, large dark space. Dyspnea
What kind of disease is asthma?
Inflammatory, constriction.
What medication can predispose someone to an asthma attack?
aspirin
How would you diagnose and treat someone with TB
Acid fast test, CXR, PPD. Tx with 2+ abx for 2mo min.
Explain when a PPD test is positive for the following: 1. HIV+ and healthcare workers, 2. child/old and 3. "normal" patient.
1. >5mm
2. >10mm
3. >15mm
How would you differentiate aortic stenosis
radiates to carotids, murmer is harsh systolic
How would you differentiate mitral stenosis
Hx rheumatic fever, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, A-fib, diostolic murmer
How would you differentiate mitral valve prolapse
mid-systolic click, often young thin female
How would you differentiate mitral regurge
holosystolic or pan systolic murmer
How would you differentiate aortic regerge
wide pulse pressure, bounding pulse, diastolic murmer, high pitched blowing
Discuss endocarditis
underlying diseases, immunocompromised. Fever, chills
What is normal BP
< 120
------
80
What is prehypertension
120-139
-------
80-90
What is stage I hypertension
140-159
-------
>100
What is stage II hypertension
160+
----
100+
What is malignant hypertension
severe HTN with rapid course, causing necrosis of arteriolar walls in kidney & retina, hemorrhages. death most frequently due to uremia or rupture of cerebral vessel
Define stable angina
chest pain on exersion
Name 3 types of angina
1. stable angina
2. unstable angina
3. Prinzmetal's angina
What causes angina (not prinzmetals)
block in a vessel
What causes prinzmetals angina
spasm or vaso-constriction of vessels
Define unstable angina
chest pain when resting
What factors can predispose prinzmetals angina
women less than 50, smoking, cocaine
How do you treat angina
aspirin, nitro
How do you diagnose angina
1. EKG (elevated ST)
2. cardiac enzymes (troponin, CK-MB)
3. CXR (LV hypertrophy)
4. Echo
5. Stress test
What are the 4 target organs affected by chronic uncontrolled HTN
1. Kidneys
2. Eyes
3. Brain
4. Heart
What kind of damage can chronic uncontrolled HTN do to the kidneys
chronic renal failure
What kind of damage can chronic uncontrolled HTN do to the eyes
Affects retina, AV nicking, papilledema, hemorraging, cotton wool spots, etc.
What kind of damage can chronic uncontrolled HTN do to the brain
TIA, CVA's
What kind of damage can chronic uncontrolled HTN do to the heart
LV hypertrophy, heart failure
How do you treat HTN
diuretics, monitor K+, can combine with A,B,C or ACE