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153 Cards in this Set

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Origin of scalenus medius
transverse processes of lower 6 cervical vertebrae (C2-C7)
Insertion of scalenus medius
upper surface of first rib
Action of scalenus medius
raises first rib (respiratory inspiration); acting together, they flex the neck; acting on one side, they laterally flex and rotate the neck
Innervation of scalenus medius
ventral rami of cervical nerves
Origin of scalenus anterior
transverse processes of 3rd through 6th cervical vertebrae
Insertion of scalenus anterior
inner border of 1st rib (scalene tubercle)
Action of scalenus anterior
raises first rib (respiratory inspiration); acting together, they flex neck; acting on one side, they laterally flex and rotate neck
Innervation of scalenus anterior
ventral rami of cervical nerves
Origin of scalenus posterior
transverse processes of lower 2 or 3 cervical vertebrae (C5-C7)
Insertion of scalenus posterior
outer surface of 2nd rib
Action of scalenus posterior
raises second rib (respiratory inspiration); acting together, they flex the neck; acting on one side, they laterally flex and rotate neck
Innervation of scalenus posterior
Ventral rami of lower cervical nerves
Origin of sternocleidomastoid
sternal head: manubrium of sternum

clavicular head: medial part of clavicle
Insertion of sternocleidomastoid
mastoid process of temporal bone, lateral half of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Action of sternocleidomastoid
one side: bends neck laterally, rotates head to opposite side

both sides together: flexes neck, draws head ventrally and elevates chin, draws sternum superiorly in deep inspiration
Innervation of sternocleidomastoid
spinal part of accessory nerve (C2, C3)
Origin of platysma
subcutaneous fascia of upper 1/4 of chest just below the clavicle
Insertion of platysma
subcutaneous fascia and muscles of chin and jaw, mandible
Action of platysma
depresses and draws lower lip laterally, draws up skin of chest, depresses mandible
Innervation of platysma
cervical branch of facial nerve
the erector spinae is a complex of what three sets of muscles?
iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalas
Action of iliocostalis cervicis (of erector spinae)
extension, lateral flexion of vertebral column
Action of iliocostalis thoracis (of erector spinae)
extension, lateral flexion of vertebral column, rotates ribs for forceful inspiration
Action of iliocostalis lumborum (of erector spinae)
extension, lateral flexion of vertebral column, rotates ribs for forceful inspiration
Action of longissimus capitis (of erector spinae)
extends and rotates head
Action of longissimus cervicis (of erector spinae)
extensions, lateral flexion of vertebral column
Action of longissimus thoracis (of erector spinae)
extension, lateral flexion of vertebral column, rotates ribs for forceful inspiration
Action of spinalis cervicis
extends vertebral column
Action of spinalis thoracis
extends vertebral column
What three groups of small muscles make up the transversospinalis?
semispinalis, multifidis, and rotatores
Action of Semispinalis capitis (of transversospinalis)
extends and rotates head
Action of semispinalis cervicis (of transversospinalis)
extends and rotates vertebral column
Action of semispinalis thoracis
extends and rotates vertebral column
Action of multifidis of trunk (of transversospinalis)
extend and rotate vertebral column
Action of rotatores of trunk (of transversospinalis)
extend and rotate vertebral column
Origin of Intercostales externi (external inercostal)
lower margin of upper 11 ribs
Insertion of intercostales externi (external intercostal)
superior border of rib below (each muscle fiber runs obliquely and inserts toward the costal cartilage)
Action of intercostales externi (external intercostal)
draw ventral part of ribs upward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity for inspiration
Innervation of intercostales externi (external intercostal)
intercostal nerves
Origin of intercostales interni (internal intercostal)
from the cartilages to the angles of the upper 11 ribs
Insertion of intercostales interni (internal intercostal)
superior border of the rib below (each muscle fiber runs obliquely and inserts away from the costal cartilage)
Action of intercostales interni (internal intercostal)
draw ventral part of ribs downward, decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity for expiration
Innervation of the intercostales interni (internal intercostal)
intercostal nerves
Origin of obliquus externus abdominis (external oblique)
lower eight ribs
Insertion of obliquus externus abdominis (external oblique
anterior part of iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Action of obliquus externus abdominis (external oblique)
compresses abdominal contents, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column
Innervation of obliquus externus abdominis (external oblique)
8th to 12th intercostal, iliohypogastic, ilioinguinal nerves
Relationships of obliquus externus abdominis
most superficial of the 3 lateral abdominal muscles
Origin of obliques internus abdominis (internal obliques)
lateral half of inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion of obliquus internus abdominis (internal oblique)
cartilage of bottom 3 or 4 ribs, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Action of obliquus internus abdominis (internal oblique)
compresses abdominal contents, laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column. important in forced expiration, coughing, sneezing
Innervation of obliquus internus abdominis (internal oblique)
8th to 12th intercostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal nerves
Relationships of obliquus internus abdominis (internal oblique)
middle layer of the 3 lateral abdominal muscles
Origin of transversus abdominis
lateral part of inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, cartilage of lower 6 ribs
Insertion of transversus abdominis
abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Action of transversus abdominis
compresses abdomen. important in forced exhalation, coughing, sneezing
Innervation of transversus abdominis
7th to 12th intercostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal nerves
Relationships of transversus abdominis
deepest of the 3 lateral abdominal muscles
Origin of rectus abdominis
crest of pubis, pubic symphysis
Insertion of rectus abdominis
cartilage of 5th, 6th, and 7th ribs, xiphoid process
Action of rectus abdominis
flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen
Innervation of rectus abdominis
7th through 12th intercostal nerves
linea alba
made up of aponeurotic fibers from the lateral abdominal muscles that each rectus is sheathed by. the central meeting of these fibers forms the linea alba
Origin of quadratus lumborum
iliolumbar ligament, iliac crest
Insertion of quadratus lumborum
12th rib, transverse processes of upper four lumbar vertebrae
Action of quadratus lumborum
laterally flexes vertebral column, fixes ribs for forced expiration
Innervation of quadratus lumborum
T12, L1
Origin of diaphragm
sternal part: inner part of xihpoid process

costal part: inner surfaces of lower 6 ribs and their cartilages

lumbar part: upper 2 or 3 lumbar vertebrae and lateral and medial lumbocostal arches
Insertion of diaphragm
fibers converge and meet on a central tendon. this muscle inserts upon itself.
Action of diaphragm
draws central tendon inferiorly, for inspiration. its action is to change the volume of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Innervation of diaphragm
phrenic nerve (C3-C5)
what is different about the diaphragm from all other skeletal muscles we've studied?
diaphragm is involuntary
Origin of trapezius
medial third of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments of 7th cervical and all thoracic vertebrae
Insertion of trapezius
upper part: lateral 3rd of clavicle

middle part: acromion and crest of spine of scapula

lower part: medial portion of crest of spine of scapula (tubercle)
Action of trapezius
upper part elevates scapula, middle part retracts (adducts) scapula, lower part depresses scapula, upper and lower parts together rotate scapula (important in elevating arm)
Innervation of trapezius
accessory (11th cranial), C3, C4
Relationships of trapezius
most superficial muscle of back
Origin of latissimus dorsi
spinous processes of the lower 6 thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, supraspinal ligament, and posterior part of the iliac crest through the lumbar (thoracolumar) fascia, lower 3 or 4 ribs, inferior angle of the scapula
Insertion of latissimus dorsi
floor (bottom) of the bicipital groove of humerus
Action of latissimus dorsi
extends, adducts, and medially rotates the arm, draws the shoulder downward and backward, keeps inferior angle of scapula against the chest wall, accessory muscle of respiration
Innervation of latissimus dorsi
thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Origin of rhomboideus major
spines of the 2nd to 5th thoracic vertebrae (T2-T5), supraspinous ligament
Insertion of rhomboideus major
medial border of the scapula below the spine
Action of rhomboideus major
retracts and fixes scapula, elevates the medial border of the scapula, rotates the scapula to depress the lateral angle (assists in adduction of the arm)
Innervation of the rhomboideus major
dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
Origin of levator scapulae
posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the first 4 cervical vertebrae
Insertion of levator scapulae
vertebral (medial) border of the scapula at and above the spine
Action of levator scapulae
elevates medial border of scapula, rotates scapula to lower the lateral angle, acts with trapezius and rhomboids to pull scapula medially and upward, bends neck laterally
Innervation of levator scapulae
dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
Origin of pectoralis major
clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle

sternocostal part: sternum, upper 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique
Insertion of pectoralis major
lateral lip of intertubercluar (bicipital) groove of humerus, crest below greater tubercle of humerus
Action of pectoralis major
horizontal adduction--both parts adduct, medially rotate arm clavicular part flexes arm from full extension; sternocostal part extends the flexed arm
Innervation of pectoralis major
medial and lateral pectoral nerves (C5-C8, T1)
Origin of pectoralis minor
external surfaces of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs
Insertion of pectoralis minor
coracoid process of the scapula
Action of pectoralis minor
draws scapula forward and downward, raises ribs in forced inspiration
Innervation of pectoralis minor
medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Relationships of pectoralis minor
deep to pectoralis major
what are the 3 downward rotators of the scapula?
rhomboids major, rhomboids minor, and pectoralis minor
Origin of serratus anterior
outer surfaces and superior borders of the first 8 or 9 ribs, and fascia covering the first intercostal spine
Insertion of serratus anterior
anterior surface (costal surface) of the medial border of the scapula
Action of serratus anterior
rotates scapula for abduction and flexion of arm, protracts scapula
Innervation of serratus anterior
long thoracic nerve (C5-C7)
Relationships of serratus anterior
serratus anterior and rhomboids both insert on the medial border of scapula; they are antagonists causing protraction and retraction
Origin of deltoideus
anterior portion: anterior border and superior surface of the lateral 3rd of the clavicle

middle portion: lateral border of the acromion process

Posterior portion: lower border of the crest of the spine of the scapula
Insertion of deltoideus
deltoid tuberosity, on the middle of the lateral surface of the shaft of the humerus
Action of deltoideus
anterior portion: flexes and medially rotates arm

middle portion: abducts arm

posterior portion: extends and laterally rotates arm
Innervation of deltoideus
axillary nerve (C5, C6)
all three portions of the deltoideus work together to do what action?
shoulder abduction
Origin of subscapularis
subscapular fossa on the anterior surface of scapula
Insertion of subscapularis
lesser tuberosity of the humerus, ventral part of the capsule of the shoulder joint
Action of subscapularis
medially rotates arms, stabilizes glenohumeral joint
Innervation of subscapularis
upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6)
what are the 4 rotator cuff muslces?
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis
Origin of supraspinatus
supraspinous fossa of scapula
Insertion of supraspinatus
upper part of the greater tuberosity of the humerus, capsule of the shoulder joint
Action of supraspinatus
aids deltoid in abduction of arm, draws humerus toward glenoid fossa preventing deltoid from forcing humerus up against acromion, weakly flexes arm
Innervation of supraspinatus
suprascapular nerve (C5)
Origin of infraspinatus
infraspinous fossa of the scapula
Insertion of infraspinatus
middle facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus, capsule of the shoulder joint
Action of infraspinatus
draws humerus toward glenoid fossa thus resisting posterior dislocation of arm, as in crawling; laterally rotates, abducts arm
Innervation of infrapinatus
suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Origin of teres minor
upper 2/3 of the dorsal surface of the axillary border (lateral border) of the scapula
Insertion of teres minor
the capsule of the shoulder joint, the lower facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus
Action of teres minor
laterally rotates arm, weakly adducts arm, draws humerus toward glenoid fossa
Innervation of teres minor
axillary nerve (C5)
what two muscles are innervated by the axillary nerve?
teres minor and deltoideus
Origin of teres major
lower 3rd of the posterior surface of the lateral border of the scapula near the inferior angle
Insertion of teres major
medial lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus
Action of teres major
medially rotates arm, adducts arm, extends arm
Innervation of teres major
lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Origin of cracobrachialis
tip (apex) of the coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion of coracobrachilais
middle 3rd of the medial surface and border of the humerus
Action of coracobrachialis
weakly adducts arm (flexion unsustantiated), aids in stabilizing humerus
Innervation of coracobrachialis
musculocutaneous nerve (C6, C7)
Relationships of coracobrachialis
deep to short head of biceps
Origin of biceps brachii
long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula

short head: coracoid process of scapula
Insertion of biceps brachii
tuberosity of radius, bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia on medial part of forearm
Action of biceps brachii
supinates forearm, flexes forearm, weakly flexes arm at shoulder
Innervation of biceps brachii
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Relationships of biceps brachii
long head passes through intertubercular (bicipital) groove, then inside glenohumeral joint capsule
in supinated position, which muscle is the primary elbow flexor?
biceps brachii
Origin of brachialis
anterior of lower half of humerus
Insertion of brachialis
coronoid process of ulna, tuberosity of ulna
Action of brachialis
flexes forearm
Innervation of brachialis
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Relationships of brachialis
deep to biceps brachii
what rotates, the radius or the ulna?
the radius
why is it harder to do pullups with hands in a pronated position?
because biceps brachii are relaxed, loose, and unable to generate a force. when your hands are in a supinated position, both the biceps brachii and brachialias muscles are triggered
Origin of triceps brachii
long head: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

lateral head: upper half of the posterior surface of the shaft of the humerus

medial head: posterior surface of the lower half of the shaft of the humerus
Insertion of triceps brachii
posterior part of olecranon process of the ulna
Action of triceps brachii
extends forearm, long head aids in adduction if arm is abducted
Innervation of triceps brachii
radial nerve (C7, C8)