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### 33 Cards in this Set

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 Experimental Method -cause and effect based on random sampling. -Hypotheses: null and alternative. -Manipulate IV(s) to affect DV to determine a possible causal relationship -Problems: extraneous variables, environment, etc. Control Group -Get the inactive part of the IV -Comparison for other levels/groups IV vs DV -IV: causal variable, at least two levels (not always enough) -DV: result (effect) variable, sensitivity to change is important. -IV is controlled to measure the impact of IV on the DV. Between Groups Design -Separate groups for each level of the IV, the results are compared. -2 group design=1 IV and 2 levels Within Groups Design -Every group gets each level of the IV -the results are usually aggregated. Simple Randomized Design -1 IV, more than two levels -McKenna -study the effects of noise on studying -dorm noise, TV, rock 'n roll, birds/nature, silent. -Subjects studied text for 30 min, later quizzed -How well written/how informative was the text? Like text? Meet author? Correlational Research Design -Use data that already exists to find a statistical correlation. -Never know if you're missing variables -Measuring what exists -Bushman and Anderson (2001) -Refuting viewing violence and acting violently -If viewing violence caused more violence, society would show it -Violent crime, non-violent, MDK RW: 13% 87% 2% TV: 87% 13% 50% Pseudo-Experimental Design -A group is exposed to a treatment or condition and then observed for changes which are attributed to the treatment. -IV exists but is not under control of researcher -1 group pre-post test -Static Group Comparison Design -No premeasure only post Quazi-Experimental Design -Experimental design with selected subjects based on real world exposure to variables at hand. -Allow for more control with a manipulated IV, also at least one non-manipulated grouping variable. -Factorial in nature -Lack random assignment -no causal results Simple Time Series Design Period of time between points of measurement. -quazi-experimental, within subjects design Equivalent Time Sample Design -Equivelant times of operations (ABAB design) -Observe - Manipulate - Observe - M (control) (experiment) (c) (e) -quazi-experimental Strong Internal Validity What you manipulate is affecting the outcome. History Effect -2 points of measurements, within subjects design -Something historical occurs between pre/post measure -Ex: Study begins 9/9/2001 and ends 9/15/2001. Maturation Short term, internal to individual. -Ex: getting bored, tired, hungry, etc. Instrumentation -Affects only the DV -As a function of measuring DV, you change it -Attitude can be changed by answering the question -Ex: the pressure from a blood pressure cuff may affect the subject's performance. Statistical Regression -At least 2 measurements using same tool -The tendency for extreme scores to regress toward the mean by the 2nd measurement. Selection Bias -Anything in the selection process skewing the results? -Ex: time of day, location, etc. Mortality (attrition) Any change due to subject loss from various comparison groups. Experimenter Bias The experimenter's own ideas influence the data. Confirmation Bias The experimenter only looks for data to support hypothesis(es). Sequencing The order of conditions may be problematic. Interaction of problems There may be multiple threats to internal validity. -Ex: History, maturation, instrumentation, statistical regression, selection bias, mortality (attrition), subject bias, experimenter bias, and/or sequencing. Subject Bias (Demand Characteristics) The subject gives what they think the experimenter wants. Latin Sqaure (counterbalancing) -Helps break down every possible condition. -Treatments are assigned at random within rows and columns, with each treatment once per row and once per column. -Usefull when the experimenter desires to control variation in two different directions. Between Subjects Design -The values of the DV for one group of participants (used) are compared with the values of another group of participants (never used). -Ex: Used Never Used 10 ----------------4 8------------------6 14----------------5 (---- = 'compared to') Within Subjects Design -Each participant gets all levels of IV, individual scores are compared -Ex: Before After SubjA: 10------------------4 SubjB: 8-------------------6 SubjC: 14------------------5 (---- = 'compared to') Non-Equivalent Control Group -Find a group as close as possible to the treated group to be used as a control group. -Can never be sure they are compatible Questions to ask when reading an abstract -What were the authors trying to figure out? -What are the IV's and DV's? -were the authors trying to show causality? -How many groups did they use? -How did they assign subjects to groups? -What would worry the IRB? -Threats to internal validity? Instructional Independent Variable -Manipulative -Need attention of subjects -Eye contact, appropriate pauses -Leave room for questions -keep as simple/clear as possible -Impact: move subjects to respond -Avoid more than one manipulation at a time -People come in, say, "I need you to..." -Manipulation takes place during instruction Event IV -Something happens, everything unfolds -Any confederate is one -As long as it is played out in front of the subject it is one -create realism (such as fake newspaper which looks real) -Generally have more impact -Keeps people from guessing what the study is about because of the "surprise." -False feedback is between instructional and event IV. Standardization -Important for consistency; every subject gets the same exposure Live or recorded? -Live gives the opportunity to make sure that people understand -Recorded gives uniformity, but not everyone processes information the same way. Cross-Lagged Panel Technique -Establishes correlations over time What would worry the IRB? -Consent -Risk -What is the Purpose/objective? -Debriefing -Benefits -Procedure -Subjects (recruitment, how many?)