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29 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Randomization

making random to control for extraneous variable


Concurrent validity

construct valid assesed by groups differ on the measure in expected ways.


Convergent validity

construct validity assessed by measure scores relation to other similar ones


Criterionoriented validity

determining construct validity by relationship of measure scores and outcome


Cronbach's alpha

internal consistency reliability assessed by average correlation of each item (question) all others


Discriminate validity

The construct validity assessed by extent which scores are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures


Internal consistency reliability

data collected at one point in time has similar results with multiple measures of a psychological construct.


Matched pairs design

pairs of subjects are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups.


Random assignment

assign an individual to a particular condition is beyond the control of the researcher.


Repeated measures design

An experiment in which the same subjects are assigned to each group. Also called withinsubjects design


Factorial design

all levels of each IV are combined with all levels of the other IVs. Allows investigation of separate main effects and interactions of two or more IVs.


Interaction

The differing effect of one IV on DV, depending on the particular level of another IV.


IV X PV design

A factorial w/ experimental IV and a nonexperiment participant variable (PV).


Mixed factorial design

A design that includes both independent groups (betweensubjects) and repeated measures (withinsubjects) variables.


Moderator variable

influences the nature of the relationship between two other variable s (an IV and DV) in order to reveal an interaction.


Simple main effect

In a factorial design, the effect of one IV at a particular level of another IV.


Structural models variability

expected relationships among variables based causality.


Analysis of variance (F test)

A statistical significance test: determs if two or more means are significantly different. F is the ratio of systematic variance to error variance.


Degrees of freedom (df)

tests of statistical significance; the number of observations that are free to vary to produce a known outcome.


Error variance

Random variability of scores not the result of the IV. Statistically, the variability of each score from its group mean.


Inferential statistics

Statistics design to determine whether results based on sample data are generalizable to a population


Null hypothesis

variables under investigation are not related in the population, observed effect is due to random error.


Power

The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis.


Research hypothesis

variables under investigation are related in the populationthat the observed effect is true in the population


Sampling distribution

Based on the null hypothesis being true; in the ESP example, the null hypothesis is that the person is only guessing and should therefore get 20% correct.


Systematic variance

Variability in scores as the result of the IV; statistically, the variability of each group mean from the grand mean of all subjects.


T test

A statistical significance test used to compare differences between means.


Type I error

An incorrect decision to REJECT the null hypothesis when it is TRUE.


Type II error

An incorrect decision to ACCEPT the null hypothesis when it is FALSE.
