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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
making random to control for extraneous variable
Concurrent validity
construct valid assesed by groups differ on the measure in expected ways.
Convergent validity
construct validity assessed by measure scores relation to other similar ones
Criterion-oriented validity
determining construct validity by relationship of measure scores and outcome
Cronbach's alpha
internal consistency reliability assessed by average correlation of each item (question) all others
Discriminate validity
The construct validity assessed by extent which scores are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures
Internal consistency reliability
data collected at one point in time has similar results with multiple measures of a psychological construct.
Matched pairs design
pairs of subjects are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups.
Random assignment
assign an individual to a particular condition is beyond the control of the researcher.
Repeated measures design
An experiment in which the same subjects are assigned to each group. Also called within-subjects design
Factorial design
all levels of each IV are combined with all levels of the other IVs. Allows investigation of separate main effects and interactions of two or more IVs.
The differing effect of one IV on DV, depending on the particular level of another IV.
IV X PV design
A factorial w/ experimental IV and a nonexperiment participant variable (PV).
Mixed factorial design
A design that includes both independent groups (between-subjects) and repeated measures (within-subjects) variables.
Moderator variable
influences the nature of the relationship between two other variable s (an IV and DV) in order to reveal an interaction.
Simple main effect
In a factorial design, the effect of one IV at a particular level of another IV.
Structural models variability
expected relationships among variables based causality.
Analysis of variance (F test)
A statistical significance test: determs if two or more means are significantly different. F is the ratio of systematic variance to error variance.
Degrees of freedom (df)
tests of statistical significance; the number of observations that are free to vary to produce a known outcome.
Error variance
Random variability of scores not the result of the IV. Statistically, the variability of each score from its group mean.
Inferential statistics
Statistics design to determine whether results based on sample data are generalizable to a population
Null hypothesis
variables under investigation are not related in the population, observed effect is due to random error.
The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis.
Research hypothesis
variables under investigation are related in the population-that the observed effect is true in the population
Sampling distribution
Based on the null hypothesis being true; in the ESP example, the null hypothesis is that the person is only guessing and should therefore get 20% correct.
Systematic variance
Variability in scores as the result of the IV; statistically, the variability of each group mean from the grand mean of all subjects.
T test
A statistical significance test used to compare differences between means.
Type I error
An incorrect decision to REJECT the null hypothesis when it is TRUE.
Type II error
An incorrect decision to ACCEPT the null hypothesis when it is FALSE.